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Research Article

A Paradigm for Virus–Host Coevolution: Sequential Counter-Adaptations between Endogenous and Exogenous Retroviruses

  • Frederick Arnaud,

    Affiliation: Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Marco Caporale,

    Affiliation: Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Mariana Varela,

    Affiliation: Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Roman Biek,

    Affiliation: Division of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Bernardo Chessa,

    Affiliation: Sezione di Malattie Infettive del Dipartimento di Patologia e Clinica Veterinaria, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy

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  • Alberto Alberti,

    Affiliation: Sezione di Malattie Infettive del Dipartimento di Patologia e Clinica Veterinaria, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy

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  • Matthew Golder,

    Affiliation: Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Manuela Mura,

    Affiliation: Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Ya-ping Zhang,

    Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China

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  • Li Yu,

    Affiliation: Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, China

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  • Filipe Pereira,

    Affiliations: Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal

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  • James C DeMartini,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America

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  • Kreg Leymaster,

    Affiliation: United States Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, Nebraska, United States of America

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  • Thomas E Spencer,

    Affiliation: Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America

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  • Massimo Palmarini mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: m.palmarini@vet.gla.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Published: November 09, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030170

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define ERV

Posted by fooz on 24 Nov 2008 at 13:16 GMT

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancient retroviral infections of the host germline transmitted vertically from generation to generation
http://plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.0030170#article1.front1.article-meta1.abstract1.p1

are retroviruses derived from ancient infections of germ cells in humans, mammals and other vertebrates; as such their proviruses are passed on to the next generation and now remain in the genome. Retroviruses are viruses that reverse-transcribe their RNA into DNA for integration into the host's genome. Most retroviruses (such as HIV-1) infect somatic cells, but some can also infect germline cells (cells that make eggs and sperm) and once they have done so and have been transmitted to the next generation, they are termed endogenous. Endogenous retroviruses can persist in the genome of their host for long periods. However, they are generally only infectious for a short time after integration as they acquire 'knockout' mutations during host DNA replication. They can also be partially excised from the genome by a process known as recombinational deletion.