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Research Article

New World Bats Harbor Diverse Influenza A Viruses

  • Suxiang Tong mail,

    sot1@cdc.gov (ST); fwb4@cdc.gov (JS); charles_rupprecht@yahoo.com (CER); edward.holmes@sydney.edu.au (ECH); wilson@scripps.edu (IAW); rvd6@cdc.gov (ROD)

    Affiliation: Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Xueyong Zhu,

    Affiliation: Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Yan Li,

    Affiliation: Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Mang Shi,

    Affiliation: Sydney Emerging Infections and Biosecurity Institute, School of Biological Sciences and Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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  • Jing Zhang,

    Affiliation: Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Melissa Bourgeois,

    Affiliation: Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Hua Yang,

    Affiliation: Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Xianfeng Chen,

    Affiliation: Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Sergio Recuenco,

    Affiliation: Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Jorge Gomez,

    Affiliation: Direccion General de Epidemiolog─▒a, Ministerio de Salud - MINSA, Lima, Peru

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  • Li-Mei Chen,

    Affiliation: Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Adam Johnson,

    Affiliation: Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Ying Tao,

    Affiliation: Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Cyrille Dreyfus,

    Affiliation: Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Wenli Yu,

    Affiliation: Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Ryan McBride,

    Affiliation: Department of Chemical Physiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Paul J. Carney,

    Affiliation: Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Amy T. Gilbert,

    Affiliation: Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Jessie Chang,

    Affiliation: Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Zhu Guo,

    Affiliation: Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Charles T. Davis,

    Affiliation: Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • James C. Paulson,

    Affiliations: Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America, Department of Chemical Physiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • James Stevens mail,

    sot1@cdc.gov (ST); fwb4@cdc.gov (JS); charles_rupprecht@yahoo.com (CER); edward.holmes@sydney.edu.au (ECH); wilson@scripps.edu (IAW); rvd6@cdc.gov (ROD)

    Affiliation: Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Charles E. Rupprecht mail,

    sot1@cdc.gov (ST); fwb4@cdc.gov (JS); charles_rupprecht@yahoo.com (CER); edward.holmes@sydney.edu.au (ECH); wilson@scripps.edu (IAW); rvd6@cdc.gov (ROD)

    Affiliations: Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America, Global Alliance for Rabies Control, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Edward C. Holmes mail,

    sot1@cdc.gov (ST); fwb4@cdc.gov (JS); charles_rupprecht@yahoo.com (CER); edward.holmes@sydney.edu.au (ECH); wilson@scripps.edu (IAW); rvd6@cdc.gov (ROD)

    Affiliations: Sydney Emerging Infections and Biosecurity Institute, School of Biological Sciences and Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Ian A. Wilson mail,

    sot1@cdc.gov (ST); fwb4@cdc.gov (JS); charles_rupprecht@yahoo.com (CER); edward.holmes@sydney.edu.au (ECH); wilson@scripps.edu (IAW); rvd6@cdc.gov (ROD)

    Affiliations: Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America, Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Ruben O. Donis mail

    sot1@cdc.gov (ST); fwb4@cdc.gov (JS); charles_rupprecht@yahoo.com (CER); edward.holmes@sydney.edu.au (ECH); wilson@scripps.edu (IAW); rvd6@cdc.gov (ROD)

    Affiliation: Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Published: October 10, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003657

Reader Comments (1)

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AT-content

Posted by gsgs on 21 Oct 2013 at 05:54 GMT

61.52%(6316,6393,6479,6208,5702,5814,5740,5936)
of the nucleotides are from {A,T}.
For the Guatemala bat-virus it was only
56.80%(5719,5873,5802,5361,5613,5419,5734),
which was more similar to the usual value in birds.
61.52% is very high, it's high in all 8 segments,
and higher than in any human or swine flu virus,
even higher than in the extinct equine H7N7 or in flu-B -
only flu-C has a higher proportion of A,T nucleotides.
It is supposed to happen by RNA-methylation and
indicates another mammalean reservoir (equine ?),
where it evolves. I am posting about it here :
http://www.flutrackers.co...

No competing interests declared.