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Research Article

Bordetella pertussis, the Causative Agent of Whooping Cough, Evolved from a Distinct, Human-Associated Lineage of B. bronchiseptica

  • Dimitri A Diavatopoulos,

    Affiliations: Laboratory for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands, Eijkman Winkler Institute, University Medical Center, Utrecht, Netherlands

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  • Craig A Cummings,

    Affiliations: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States of America

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  • Leo M Schouls,

    Affiliation: Laboratory for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands

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  • Mary M Brinig,

    Affiliations: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States of America

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  • David A Relman,

    Affiliations: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Frits R Mooi mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: fr.mooi@rivm.nl

    Affiliations: Laboratory for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands, Eijkman Winkler Institute, University Medical Center, Utrecht, Netherlands

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  • Published: December 30, 2005
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0010045

About the Authors

Dimitri A Diavatopoulos, Leo M Schouls, Frits R Mooi
Laboratory for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands
Dimitri A Diavatopoulos, Frits R Mooi
Eijkman Winkler Institute, University Medical Center, Utrecht, Netherlands
Craig A Cummings, Mary M Brinig, David A Relman
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America
Craig A Cummings, Mary M Brinig, David A Relman
VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States of America
David A Relman
Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: fr.mooi@rivm.nl

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

DAD and FRM conceived and designed the experiments. DAD performed the experiments. DAD, CAC, LMS, and MMB analyzed the data. CAC and LMS contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. DAD, CAC, LMS, DAR, and FRM wrote the paper.