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Research Article

Stochastic Processes Are Key Determinants of Short-Term Evolution in Influenza A Virus

  • Martha I Nelson,

    Affiliation: Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Lone Simonsen,

    Affiliation: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Cecile Viboud,

    Affiliation: Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Mark A Miller,

    Affiliation: Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Jill Taylor,

    Affiliation: Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, United States of America

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  • Kirsten St George,

    Affiliation: Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, United States of America

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  • Sara B Griesemer,

    Affiliation: Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, United States of America

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  • Elodie Ghedin,

    Affiliation: The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Naomi A Sengamalay,

    Affiliation: The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • David J Spiro,

    Affiliation: The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Igor Volkov,

    Affiliation: Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Bryan T Grenfell,

    Affiliations: Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • David J Lipman,

    Affiliation: National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Jeffery K Taubenberger,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Edward C Holmes mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: ech15@psu.edu

    Affiliations: Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Published: December 01, 2006
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0020125

About the Authors

Martha I Nelson, Igor Volkov, Bryan T Grenfell, Edward C Holmes
Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Lone Simonsen
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Cecile Viboud, Mark A Miller, Bryan T Grenfell, Edward C Holmes
Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Jill Taylor, Kirsten St George, Sara B Griesemer
Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, United States of America
Elodie Ghedin, Naomi A Sengamalay, David J Spiro
The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America
David J Lipman
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Jeffery K Taubenberger
Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: ech15@psu.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

MIN and ECH conceived the study and wrote the paper, with contributions from all other authors. JT, KSG, and SGB collected the viral samples. EG, NAS, and DJS undertook the viral genome sequencing. LS, CV, MAM, and BTG advised on epidemiological aspects of the study. MIN, IV, and ECH performed the sequence analysis. DJL and JKT wrote the paper.