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Research Article

Spatial, Temporal, and Species Variation in Prevalence of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Migratory Birds

  • Vincent J Munster,

    Affiliation: Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Chantal Baas,

    Affiliation: Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Pascal Lexmond,

    Affiliation: Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Jonas Waldenström,

    Affiliation: Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden

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  • Anders Wallensten,

    Affiliations: Smedby Health Center, Kalmar County Council, Kalmar, Sweden, Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

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  • Thord Fransson,

    Affiliation: Bird Ringing Center, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Guus F Rimmelzwaan,

    Affiliation: Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Walter E. P Beyer,

    Affiliation: Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Martin Schutten,

    Affiliation: Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Björn Olsen,

    Affiliations: Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, Department of Clinical Science, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden

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  • Albert D. M. E Osterhaus,

    Affiliation: Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Ron A. M Fouchier mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: r.fouchier@erasmusmc.nl

    Affiliation: Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Published: May 11, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030061

About the Authors

Vincent J Munster, Chantal Baas, Pascal Lexmond, Guus F Rimmelzwaan, Walter E. P Beyer, Martin Schutten, Albert D. M. E Osterhaus, Ron A. M Fouchier
Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Jonas Waldenström, Björn Olsen
Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden
Anders Wallensten
Smedby Health Center, Kalmar County Council, Kalmar, Sweden
Anders Wallensten
Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden
Thord Fransson
Bird Ringing Center, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden
Björn Olsen
Department of Clinical Science, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden

Corresponding Author

Email: r.fouchier@erasmusmc.nl

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

VJM, GFR, BO, ADMEO, and RAMF conceived and designed the experiments. VJM, CB, PL, MS, and RAMF performed the experiments. VJM, JW, AW, TF, GFR, WEPB, ADMEO, and RAMF analyzed the data. VJM, CB, PL, JW, AW, TF, MS, BO, and RAMF contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. VJM and RAMF wrote the paper.