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Research Article

Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals the Global Migration of Seasonal Influenza A Viruses

  • Martha I Nelson,

    Affiliations: Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Lone Simonsen,

    Affiliation: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Cecile Viboud,

    Affiliation: Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Mark A Miller,

    Affiliation: Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Edward C Holmes mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: ech15@psu.edu

    Affiliations: Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Published: September 14, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030131

About the Authors

Martha I Nelson, Edward C Holmes
Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Martha I Nelson, Edward C Holmes
Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Lone Simonsen
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Cecile Viboud, Mark A Miller, Edward C Holmes
Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: ech15@psu.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

MIN and ECH conceived the study. MIN performed the genome sequence analysis. MIN, LS, CV, MAM, and ECH wrote the paper.