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Research Article

T Cell Responses to Human Endogenous Retroviruses in HIV-1 Infection

  • Keith E Garrison equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Keith E Garrison, R. Brad Jones

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: keith.garrison@ucsf.edu (KEG), brad.jones@utoronto.ca (RBJ)

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

    X
  • R. Brad Jones equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Keith E Garrison, R. Brad Jones

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: keith.garrison@ucsf.edu (KEG), brad.jones@utoronto.ca (RBJ)

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    X
  • Duncan A Meiklejohn,

    Affiliation: Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Naveed Anwar,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Lishomwa C Ndhlovu,

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Joan M Chapman,

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Ann L Erickson,

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Ashish Agrawal,

    Affiliation: Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Gerald Spotts,

    Affiliation: Positive Health Program, Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Frederick M Hecht,

    Affiliation: Positive Health Program, Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Seth Rakoff-Nahoum,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Jack Lenz,

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Mario A Ostrowski,

    Affiliations: Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Douglas F Nixon

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Published: November 09, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030165

About the Authors

Keith E Garrison, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Joan M Chapman, Ann L Erickson, Douglas F Nixon
Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
R. Brad Jones, Naveed Anwar, Mario A Ostrowski
Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Duncan A Meiklejohn, Ashish Agrawal
Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Gerald Spotts, Frederick M Hecht
Positive Health Program, Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Seth Rakoff-Nahoum
Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
Jack Lenz
Department of Molecular Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America
Mario A Ostrowski
St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

KEG, RBJ, DAM, AA, FMH, SRN, JL, MAO, and DFN are named as inventors on a patent application, based on this work, which was filed by their respective institutions.

Author Contributions

KEG, RBJ, MAO, and DFN composed the manuscript and planned the experimentation for this work. RBJ designed, validated, and performed the quantitative PCR experiments with the assistance of NA. KEG, NA, DAM, and RBJ, JMC, and DFN performed the ELISPOT analysis of T cell responses. ALE performed the 51Cr-release assays. AA performed the initial database searches to identify peptide sequences, with KEG, AA, FMH, and DFN developing the selection process for the peptides. KEG and LCN performed the multicolor flow cytometry experiments. FMH directs the OPTIONS cohort, with GS as data manager, which provided samples for the study. SRN and JL were important early contributors to the initial selection of HERV insertions on which to focus further experimentation. MAO and DFN are equal last authors.