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Research Article

A Paradigm for Virus–Host Coevolution: Sequential Counter-Adaptations between Endogenous and Exogenous Retroviruses

  • Frederick Arnaud,

    Affiliation: Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Marco Caporale,

    Affiliation: Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Mariana Varela,

    Affiliation: Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Roman Biek,

    Affiliation: Division of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Bernardo Chessa,

    Affiliation: Sezione di Malattie Infettive del Dipartimento di Patologia e Clinica Veterinaria, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy

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  • Alberto Alberti,

    Affiliation: Sezione di Malattie Infettive del Dipartimento di Patologia e Clinica Veterinaria, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy

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  • Matthew Golder,

    Affiliation: Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Manuela Mura,

    Affiliation: Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Ya-ping Zhang,

    Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China

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  • Li Yu,

    Affiliation: Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, China

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  • Filipe Pereira,

    Affiliations: Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal

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  • James C DeMartini,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America

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  • Kreg Leymaster,

    Affiliation: United States Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, Nebraska, United States of America

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  • Thomas E Spencer,

    Affiliation: Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America

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  • Massimo Palmarini mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: m.palmarini@vet.gla.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Published: November 09, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030170

About the Authors

Frederick Arnaud, Marco Caporale, Mariana Varela, Matthew Golder, Manuela Mura, Massimo Palmarini
Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland
Roman Biek
Division of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland
Bernardo Chessa, Alberto Alberti
Sezione di Malattie Infettive del Dipartimento di Patologia e Clinica Veterinaria, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy
Ya-ping Zhang
State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
Li Yu
Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, China
Filipe Pereira
Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
Filipe Pereira
Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
James C DeMartini
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America
Kreg Leymaster
United States Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, Nebraska, United States of America
Thomas E Spencer
Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: m.palmarini@vet.gla.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

FA, TES, and MP conceived and designed the experiments and wrote the paper. FA, MC, MV, RB, BC, MG, MM, and LY performed the experiments. FA, MC, MV, RB, BC, TES, and MP analyzed the data. AA, YPZ, FP, JCD, and KL contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools.