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Research Article

Multiple Reassortment Events in the Evolutionary History of H1N1 Influenza A Virus Since 1918

  • Martha I. Nelson,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Cécile Viboud,

    Affiliation: Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Lone Simonsen,

    Affiliation: Department of Global Health, School of Public Health and Health Services, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States of America

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  • Ryan T. Bennett,

    Affiliation: Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, United States of America

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  • Sara B. Griesemer,

    Affiliation: Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, United States of America

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  • Kirsten St. George,

    Affiliation: Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, United States of America

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  • Jill Taylor,

    Affiliation: Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, United States of America

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  • David J. Spiro,

    Affiliation: The J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Naomi A. Sengamalay,

    Affiliation: Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Elodie Ghedin,

    Affiliation: Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Jeffery K. Taubenberger,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Edward C. Holmes mail

    ech15@psu.edu

    Affiliations: Department of Biology, Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Published: February 29, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000012

About the Authors

Martha I. Nelson, Edward C. Holmes
Department of Biology, Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Cécile Viboud, Edward C. Holmes
Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Lone Simonsen
Department of Global Health, School of Public Health and Health Services, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States of America
Ryan T. Bennett, Sara B. Griesemer, Kirsten St. George, Jill Taylor
Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, United States of America
David J. Spiro
The J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America
Naomi A. Sengamalay
Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Elodie Ghedin
Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Jeffery K. Taubenberger
Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: ech15@psu.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MN EH. Performed the experiments: RB SG KS JT DS NS EG. Analyzed the data: MN. Wrote the paper: MN CV LS RB SG KS JT DS NS EG JKT EH. Performed the sequence analysis: MN. Advised on epidemiological aspects of the study: CV LS. Collected a subset of the viral samples: RB SG KS JT. Undertook the viral genome sequencing: DS NS EG. Advised on virological aspects of the study: JKT.