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Research Article

Pneumococcal Pili Are Composed of Protofilaments Exposing Adhesive Clusters of Rrg A

  • Markus Hilleringmann mail,

    markus.hilleringmann@novartis.com

    Affiliation: Research Center, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics s.r.l., Siena, Italy

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  • Fabiola Giusti,

    Affiliation: Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Siena, Siena, Italy

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  • Barbara C. Baudner,

    Affiliation: Research Center, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics s.r.l., Siena, Italy

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  • Vega Masignani,

    Affiliation: Research Center, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics s.r.l., Siena, Italy

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  • Antonello Covacci,

    Affiliation: Research Center, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics s.r.l., Siena, Italy

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  • Rino Rappuoli,

    Affiliation: Research Center, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics s.r.l., Siena, Italy

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  • Michèle A. Barocchi,

    Affiliation: Research Center, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics s.r.l., Siena, Italy

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  • Ilaria Ferlenghi

    Affiliation: Research Center, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics s.r.l., Siena, Italy

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  • Published: March 21, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000026

About the Authors

Markus Hilleringmann, Barbara C. Baudner, Vega Masignani, Antonello Covacci, Rino Rappuoli, Michèle A. Barocchi, Ilaria Ferlenghi
Research Center, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics s.r.l., Siena, Italy
Fabiola Giusti
Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Siena, Siena, Italy

Corresponding Author

Email: markus.hilleringmann@novartis.com

Competing Interests

Paid employment: All authors (except F. Giusti) are paid by Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics s.r.l.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MH BB IF. Performed the experiments: MH FG BB IF. Analyzed the data: MH FG BB VM AC RR MB IF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MH FG BB MB IF. Wrote the paper: MH BB MB IF. Support for the study: AC RR.