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Research Article

The Evolutionary Genetics and Emergence of Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds

  • Vivien G. Dugan,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Rubing Chen,

    Affiliation: Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • David J. Spiro,

    Affiliation: The J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Naomi Sengamalay,

    Affiliation: The J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Jennifer Zaborsky,

    Affiliation: The J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Elodie Ghedin,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Jacqueline Nolting,

    Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America

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  • David E. Swayne,

    Affiliation: Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Jonathan A. Runstadler,

    Affiliation: Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States of America

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  • George M. Happ,

    Affiliation: Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States of America

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  • Dennis A. Senne,

    Affiliation: National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, US Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa, United States of America

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  • Ruixue Wang,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Richard D. Slemons,

    Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America

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  • Edward C. Holmes,

    Affiliations: Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Jeffery K. Taubenberger mail

    taubenbergerj@niaid.nih.gov

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Published: May 30, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000076

About the Authors

Vivien G. Dugan, Ruixue Wang, Jeffery K. Taubenberger
Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Rubing Chen, Edward C. Holmes
Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
David J. Spiro, Naomi Sengamalay, Jennifer Zaborsky
The J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America
Elodie Ghedin
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Jacqueline Nolting, Richard D. Slemons
Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America
David E. Swayne
Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia, United States of America
Jonathan A. Runstadler, George M. Happ
Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States of America
Dennis A. Senne
National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, US Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa, United States of America
Edward C. Holmes
Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: taubenbergerj@niaid.nih.gov

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: J. Taubenberger. Performed the experiments: V. Dugan, R. Chen, D. Spiro, N. Sengamalay, J. Zaborsky, E. Ghedin, J. Nolting, D. Senne, R. Wang, R. Slemons, J. Taubenberger. Analyzed the data: V. Dugan, R. Chen, D. Senne, R. Slemons, E. Holmes, J. Taubenberger. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: D. Swayne, J. Runstadler, G. Happ, R. Slemons. Wrote the paper: V. Dugan, R. Chen, R. Slemons, E. Holmes, J. Taubenberger.