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Research Article

Molecular Ecology and Natural History of Simian Foamy Virus Infection in Wild-Living Chimpanzees

  • Weimin Liu,

    Affiliation: Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

    X
  • Michael Worobey,

    Affiliation: University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America

    X
  • Yingying Li,

    Affiliation: Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

    X
  • Brandon F. Keele,

    Affiliation: Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

    X
  • Frederic Bibollet-Ruche,

    Affiliation: Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

    X
  • Yuanyuan Guo,

    Affiliation: Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

    X
  • Paul A. Goepfert,

    Affiliation: Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

    X
  • Mario L. Santiago,

    Affiliation: Gladstone Institute for Virology and Immunology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

    X
  • Jean-Bosco N. Ndjango,

    Affiliation: Faculties of Sciences, University of Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo

    X
  • Cecile Neel,

    Affiliations: Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) and University of Montpellier 1, Montpellier, France, Projet Prevention du Sida ou Cameroun (PRESICA), Yaoundé, Cameroun

    X
  • Stephen L. Clifford,

    Affiliation: Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville (CIRMF), Franceville, Gabon

    X
  • Crickette Sanz,

    Affiliation: Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

    X
  • Shadrack Kamenya,

    Affiliation: Gombe Stream Research Centre, The Jane Goodall Institute, Tanzania

    X
  • Michael L. Wilson,

    Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America

    X
  • Anne E. Pusey,

    Affiliation: Jane Goodall Institute's Center for Primate Studies, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America

    X
  • Nicole Gross-Camp,

    Affiliation: Antioch New England Graduate School, Keene, New Hampshire, United States of America

    X
  • Christophe Boesch,

    Affiliation: Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

    X
  • Vince Smith,

    Affiliation: The Gorilla Organization, Kigali, Rwanda

    X
  • Koichiro Zamma,

    Affiliation: Great Ape Research Institute, Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Okayama, Japan

    X
  • Michael A. Huffman,

    Affiliation: Section of Ecology, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Aichi, Japan

    X
  • John C. Mitani,

    Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

    X
  • David P. Watts,

    Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

    X
  • Martine Peeters,

    Affiliation: Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) and University of Montpellier 1, Montpellier, France

    X
  • George M. Shaw,

    Affiliation: Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

    X
  • William M. Switzer,

    Affiliation: Laboratory Branch, National Center for HIV/AIDS, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

    X
  • Paul M. Sharp,

    Affiliation: Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

    X
  • Beatrice H. Hahn mail

    bhahn@uab.edu

    Affiliation: Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

    X
  • Published: July 04, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000097

About the Authors

Weimin Liu, Yingying Li, Brandon F. Keele, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Yuanyuan Guo, Paul A. Goepfert, George M. Shaw, Beatrice H. Hahn
Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America
Michael Worobey
University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America
Mario L. Santiago
Gladstone Institute for Virology and Immunology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Jean-Bosco N. Ndjango
Faculties of Sciences, University of Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo
Cecile Neel, Martine Peeters
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) and University of Montpellier 1, Montpellier, France
Cecile Neel
Projet Prevention du Sida ou Cameroun (PRESICA), Yaoundé, Cameroun
Stephen L. Clifford
Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville (CIRMF), Franceville, Gabon
Crickette Sanz, Christophe Boesch
Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
Shadrack Kamenya
Gombe Stream Research Centre, The Jane Goodall Institute, Tanzania
Michael L. Wilson
Department of Anthropology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
Anne E. Pusey
Jane Goodall Institute's Center for Primate Studies, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America
Nicole Gross-Camp
Antioch New England Graduate School, Keene, New Hampshire, United States of America
Vince Smith
The Gorilla Organization, Kigali, Rwanda
Koichiro Zamma
Great Ape Research Institute, Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Okayama, Japan
Michael A. Huffman
Section of Ecology, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Aichi, Japan
John C. Mitani
Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
David P. Watts
Department of Anthropology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
William M. Switzer
Laboratory Branch, National Center for HIV/AIDS, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
Paul M. Sharp
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: bhahn@uab.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: WL MW GS PS BH. Performed the experiments: YL BK FB YG MS. Analyzed the data: WL MW PS BH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: PG JN CN SC CS SK MW AP NG CB VS KZ MH JM DW MP WS. Wrote the paper: WL MW AP JM GS WS PS BH.