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Research Article

Evolutionary Dynamics and Emergence of Panzootic H5N1 Influenza Viruses

  • Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna,

    Affiliations: State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Special Administrative Region, China, International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China

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  • Justin Bahl,

    Affiliations: State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Special Administrative Region, China, International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China

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  • Steven Riley,

    Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China

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  • Lian Duan,

    Affiliations: State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Special Administrative Region, China, International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China

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  • Jin Xia Zhang,

    Affiliations: State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Special Administrative Region, China, International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China

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  • Honglin Chen,

    Affiliations: State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Special Administrative Region, China, International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China

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  • J. S. Malik Peiris,

    Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Special Administrative Region, China

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  • Gavin J. D. Smith mail,

    gjsmith@hku.hk (GJDS); yguan@hku.hk (YG)

    Affiliations: State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Special Administrative Region, China, International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China

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  • Yi Guan mail

    gjsmith@hku.hk (GJDS); yguan@hku.hk (YG)

    Affiliations: State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Special Administrative Region, China, International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China

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  • Published: September 26, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000161

About the Authors

Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna, Justin Bahl, Lian Duan, Jin Xia Zhang, Honglin Chen, J. S. Malik Peiris, Gavin J. D. Smith, Yi Guan
State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Special Administrative Region, China
Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna, Justin Bahl, Lian Duan, Jin Xia Zhang, Honglin Chen, Gavin J. D. Smith, Yi Guan
International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China
Steven Riley
Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: DV GJS YG. Performed the experiments: DV JB LD JXZ. Analyzed the data: DV JB LD YG. Wrote the paper: DV JB SR HC JSMP GJS YG.