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Research Article

Immunity to HIV-1 Is Influenced by Continued Natural Exposure to Exogenous Virus

  • Christian B. Willberg mail,

    Chris.Willberg@ndm.ox.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • J. Jeff McConnell,

    Affiliation: Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Emily M. Eriksson,

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Larry A. Bragg,

    Affiliation: Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Vanessa A. York,

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Teri J. Liegler,

    Affiliation: Division of HIV/AIDS, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Fredrick M. Hecht,

    Affiliation: Positive Health Program, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Robert M. Grant,

    Affiliation: Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Douglas F. Nixon

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Published: October 24, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000185

About the Authors

Christian B. Willberg, Emily M. Eriksson, Vanessa A. York, Douglas F. Nixon
Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
J. Jeff McConnell, Larry A. Bragg, Robert M. Grant
Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Teri J. Liegler
Division of HIV/AIDS, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Fredrick M. Hecht
Positive Health Program, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: Chris.Willberg@ndm.ox.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: CBW FMH RMG DFN. Performed the experiments: CBW EME VAY. Analyzed the data: CBW JJM LAB RMG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: CBW JJM LAB TJL RMG DFN. Wrote the paper: CBW JJM TJL FMH DFN.