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Research Article

Distinct Roles for FOXP3+ and FOXP3 CD4+ T Cells in Regulating Cellular Immunity to Uncomplicated and Severe Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

  • Michael Walther mail,

    mwalther@mrc.gm

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

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  • David Jeffries,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

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  • Olivia C. Finney,

    Affiliations: Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Madi Njie,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

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  • Augustine Ebonyi,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

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  • Susanne Deininger,

    Affiliations: Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia, Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany

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  • Emma Lawrence,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

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  • Alfred Ngwa-Amambua,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

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  • Shamanthi Jayasooriya,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

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  • Ian H. Cheeseman,

    Affiliations: Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Natalia Gomez-Escobar,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

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  • Joseph Okebe,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

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  • David J. Conway,

    Affiliations: Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Eleanor M. Riley

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Published: April 03, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000364

About the Authors

Michael Walther, David Jeffries, Olivia C. Finney, Madi Njie, Augustine Ebonyi, Susanne Deininger, Emma Lawrence, Alfred Ngwa-Amambua, Shamanthi Jayasooriya, Ian H. Cheeseman, Natalia Gomez-Escobar, Joseph Okebe, David J. Conway
Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia
Olivia C. Finney, Ian H. Cheeseman, David J. Conway, Eleanor M. Riley
Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
Susanne Deininger
Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany

Corresponding Author

Email: mwalther@mrc.gm

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MW SD EMR. Performed the experiments: MW OCF MN EJL ANA SJ IHC NGE. Analyzed the data: MW DJJ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MW NGE DJC EMR. Wrote the paper: MW EMR. Responsible for the statistical model applied to the data: DJJ. Contributed to FACS work: OCF. Contributed substantially to various aspects of the lab work: MN. Responsible for the recruitment of the study patients: AE. Designed the RT-PCR experiments: SD. Did most of the ELISPOTs: EJL. Performed the sequencing of the parasites: ANA. Contributed to flow cytometry and ELISPOT experiments: SJ. Contributed to parasite sequencing and prepared malaria antigens: IHC. Provided expertise on designing the RT-PCR assays and helped with parasite sequencing: NGE. Recruited patients into the study and responsible for the conduct according to GCP guidelines: JO. Provided expertise in the design and analysis: DJC. Contributed to the overall design and concept of the study as well as to the analysis and write up: EMR.