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Research Article

Rapid Global Expansion of the Fungal Disease Chytridiomycosis into Declining and Healthy Amphibian Populations

  • Timothy Y. James mail,

    tyjames@umich.edu

    Affiliations: Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Anastasia P. Litvintseva,

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Rytas Vilgalys,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Jess A. T. Morgan,

    Affiliation: Department of Primary Industries & Fisheries, Animal Research Institute, Yeerongpilly, Queensland, Australia

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  • John W. Taylor,

    Affiliation: Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America

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  • Matthew C. Fisher,

    Affiliation: Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, St. Mary's Campus, London, United Kingdom

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  • Lee Berger,

    Affiliation: School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia

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  • Ché Weldon,

    Affiliation: School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa

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  • Louis du Preez,

    Affiliation: School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa

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  • Joyce E. Longcore

    Affiliation: School of Biology & Ecology, University of Maine, Orono, Maine, United States of America

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  • Published: May 29, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000458

About the Authors

Timothy Y. James, Rytas Vilgalys
Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
Timothy Y. James
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Anastasia P. Litvintseva
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
Jess A. T. Morgan
Department of Primary Industries & Fisheries, Animal Research Institute, Yeerongpilly, Queensland, Australia
John W. Taylor
Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America
Matthew C. Fisher
Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, St. Mary's Campus, London, United Kingdom
Lee Berger
School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
Ché Weldon, Louis du Preez
School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
Joyce E. Longcore
School of Biology & Ecology, University of Maine, Orono, Maine, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: tyjames@umich.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: TJ APL RV JATM JWT MF LB CW LdP JEL. Performed the experiments: TJ APL JATM MF LB CW JEL. Analyzed the data: TJ APL JATM JWT. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RV JWT LdP JEL. Wrote the paper: TJ MF LB JEL.