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Research Article

HIV-1 Vpr Triggers Natural Killer Cell–Mediated Lysis of Infected Cells through Activation of the ATR-Mediated DNA Damage Response

  • Jeffrey Ward,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America

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  • Zachary Davis,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Jason DeHart,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America

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  • Erik Zimmerman,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America

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  • Alberto Bosque,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America

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  • Enrico Brunetta,

    Affiliation: Laboratorio di Immunologia Sperimentale, IRCCS, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano (Milano), Italy

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  • Domenico Mavilio,

    Affiliation: Laboratorio di Immunologia Sperimentale, IRCCS, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano (Milano), Italy

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  • Vicente Planelles equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Vicente Planelles, Edward Barker

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America

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  • Edward Barker equal contributor mail

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Vicente Planelles, Edward Barker

    Edward_Barker@rush.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Published: October 02, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000613

About the Authors

Jeffrey Ward
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America
Zachary Davis, Edward Barker
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
Jason DeHart, Erik Zimmerman, Alberto Bosque, Vicente Planelles
Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America
Enrico Brunetta, Domenico Mavilio
Laboratorio di Immunologia Sperimentale, IRCCS, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano (Milano), Italy

Corresponding Author

Email: Edward_Barker@rush.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: J. Ward, J. DeHart, E. Zimmerman, D. Mavilio, V. Planelles, E. Barker. Performed the experiments: J. Ward, Z. Davis, A. Bosque, E. Barker. Analyzed the data: J. Ward, Z. Davis, V. Planelles, E. Barker. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: J. DeHart, E. Brunetta, D. Mavilio. Wrote the paper: J. Ward, Z. Davis, V. Planelles, E. Barker.