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Research Article

Identification of Amino Acids in HA and PB2 Critical for the Transmission of H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses in a Mammalian Host

  • Yuwei Gao,

    Affiliations: Animal Influenza Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People's Republic of China, The 11th Institute, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun, People's Republic of China

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  • Ying Zhang,

    Affiliation: Animal Influenza Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People's Republic of China

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  • Kyoko Shinya,

    Affiliation: The International Center for Medical Research and Treatment, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan

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  • Guohua Deng,

    Affiliation: Animal Influenza Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People's Republic of China

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  • Yongping Jiang,

    Affiliation: Animal Influenza Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People's Republic of China

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  • Zejun Li,

    Affiliation: Animal Influenza Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People's Republic of China

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  • Yuntao Guan,

    Affiliation: Animal Influenza Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People's Republic of China

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  • Guobin Tian,

    Affiliation: Animal Influenza Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People's Republic of China

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  • Yanbing Li,

    Affiliation: Animal Influenza Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People's Republic of China

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  • Jianzhong Shi,

    Affiliation: Animal Influenza Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People's Republic of China

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  • Liling Liu,

    Affiliation: Animal Influenza Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People's Republic of China

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  • Xianying Zeng,

    Affiliation: Animal Influenza Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People's Republic of China

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  • Zhigao Bu,

    Affiliation: Animal Influenza Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People's Republic of China

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  • Xianzhu Xia,

    Affiliation: The 11th Institute, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun, People's Republic of China

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  • Yoshihiro Kawaoka mail,

    kawaokay@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu (YK); hlchen1@yahoo.com (HC)

    Affiliations: The International Center for Medical Research and Treatment, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan, Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology; International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

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  • Hualan Chen mail

    kawaokay@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu (YK); hlchen1@yahoo.com (HC)

    Affiliation: Animal Influenza Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People's Republic of China

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  • Published: December 24, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000709

About the Authors

Yuwei Gao, Ying Zhang, Guohua Deng, Yongping Jiang, Zejun Li, Yuntao Guan, Guobin Tian, Yanbing Li, Jianzhong Shi, Liling Liu, Xianying Zeng, Zhigao Bu, Hualan Chen
Animal Influenza Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People's Republic of China
Yuwei Gao, Xianzhu Xia
The 11th Institute, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun, People's Republic of China
Kyoko Shinya, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
The International Center for Medical Research and Treatment, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan
Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology; International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: Z. Bu, H. Chen. Performed the experiments: Y. Gao, Y. Zhang, K. Shinya, G. Deng, Y. Jiang, Z. Li, Y. Guan, G. Tian, Y. Li, J. Shi, L. Liu, X. Zeng. Analyzed the data: Y. Gao, Y. Zhang, K. Shinya, Z. Bu, X. Xia, Y. Kawaoka, H. Chen. Wrote the paper: Y. Gao, Z. Bu, Y. Kawaoka, H. Chen.