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Research Article

On the Diversity of Malaria Parasites in African Apes and the Origin of Plasmodium falciparum from Bonobos

  • Sabrina Krief equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Sabrina Krief, Ananias A. Escalante

    Affiliation: UMR 7206-USM 104, Eco-Anthropologie et Ethnobiologie, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

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  • Ananias A. Escalante equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Sabrina Krief, Ananias A. Escalante

    Ananias.Escalante@asu.edu (AAE); georges.snounou@upmc.fr or gsnounou@gmail.com (GS)

    Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America

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  • M. Andreina Pacheco,

    Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Lawrence Mugisha,

    Affiliation: Chimpanzee Sanctuary & Wildlife Conservation Trust (CSWCT), Entebbe, Uganda

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  • Claudine André,

    Affiliation: Lola Ya Bonobo Bonobo Sanctuary, “Petites Chutes de la Lukaya”, Kimwenza–Mont Ngafula, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

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  • Michel Halbwax,

    Affiliation: Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

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  • Anne Fischer,

    Affiliation: Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

    Current address: African Insect Science for Food and Health, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Jean-Michel Krief,

    Affiliation: Projet pour la Conservation des Grands Singes, Paris, France

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  • John M. Kasenene,

    Affiliation: Department of Botany, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Makerere University Biological Field Station, Fort Portal, Uganda

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  • Mike Crandfield,

    Affiliation: Research and Conservation Program, The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Omar E. Cornejo,

    Affiliation: Emory University, Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Jean-Marc Chavatte,

    Affiliation: USM0307, Parasitologie Comparée et Modèles Expérimentaux, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

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  • Clara Lin,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Malaria Immunobiology, Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore

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  • Franck Letourneur,

    Affiliation: Institut Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, CNRS (UMR 8104), Paris, France; INSERM U567, Paris, France

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  • Anne Charlotte Grüner,

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Malaria Immunobiology, Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore, Institut Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, CNRS (UMR 8104), Paris, France; INSERM U567, Paris, France

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  • Thomas F. McCutchan,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Laurent Rénia,

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Malaria Immunobiology, Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore, Institut Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, CNRS (UMR 8104), Paris, France; INSERM U567, Paris, France

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  • Georges Snounou mail

    Ananias.Escalante@asu.edu (AAE); georges.snounou@upmc.fr or gsnounou@gmail.com (GS)

    Affiliations: USM0307, Parasitologie Comparée et Modèles Expérimentaux, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, Laboratory of Malaria Immunobiology, Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore, INSERM UMR S 945, Paris, France, Université Pierre & Marie Curie, Faculté de Médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France, Department of Microbiology, National University of Singapore, Singapore

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  • Published: February 12, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000765

About the Authors

Sabrina Krief
UMR 7206-USM 104, Eco-Anthropologie et Ethnobiologie, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France
Ananias A. Escalante, M. Andreina Pacheco
School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America
Lawrence Mugisha
Chimpanzee Sanctuary & Wildlife Conservation Trust (CSWCT), Entebbe, Uganda
Claudine André
Lola Ya Bonobo Bonobo Sanctuary, “Petites Chutes de la Lukaya”, Kimwenza–Mont Ngafula, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Michel Halbwax, Anne Fischer
Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
Jean-Michel Krief
Projet pour la Conservation des Grands Singes, Paris, France
John M. Kasenene
Department of Botany, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Makerere University Biological Field Station, Fort Portal, Uganda
Mike Crandfield
Research and Conservation Program, The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Omar E. Cornejo
Emory University, Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
Jean-Marc Chavatte, Georges Snounou
USM0307, Parasitologie Comparée et Modèles Expérimentaux, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France
Clara Lin, Anne Charlotte Grüner, Laurent Rénia, Georges Snounou
Laboratory of Malaria Immunobiology, Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore
Franck Letourneur, Anne Charlotte Grüner, Laurent Rénia
Institut Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, CNRS (UMR 8104), Paris, France; INSERM U567, Paris, France
Thomas F. McCutchan
Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Georges Snounou
INSERM UMR S 945, Paris, France
Georges Snounou
Université Pierre & Marie Curie, Faculté de Médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France
Georges Snounou
Department of Microbiology, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SK AAE MAP MC OEC ACG TFM LR GS. Performed the experiments: SK AAE MAP LM OEC JMC CL FL ACG GS. Analyzed the data: SK AAE MAP CA MH AF JMK JMK MC OEC JMC CL ACG TFM LR GS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SK AAE MAP LM CA MH AF JMK JMK MC OEC JMC CL FL ACG TFM LR GS. Wrote the paper: SK AAE MAP OEC GS.