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Research Article

Emergence and Pathogenicity of Highly Virulent Cryptococcus gattii Genotypes in the Northwest United States

  • Edmond J. Byrnes III equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Edmond J. Byrnes III, Wenjun Li, Yonathan Lewit

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Wenjun Li equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Edmond J. Byrnes III, Wenjun Li, Yonathan Lewit

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Yonathan Lewit equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Edmond J. Byrnes III, Wenjun Li, Yonathan Lewit

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Hansong Ma,

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular Pathobiology, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

    X
  • Kerstin Voelz,

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular Pathobiology, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

    X
  • Ping Ren,

    Affiliation: Mycology Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, Albany, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Dee A. Carter,

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

    X
  • Vishnu Chaturvedi,

    Affiliation: Mycology Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, Albany, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Robert J. Bildfell,

    Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America

    X
  • Robin C. May,

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular Pathobiology, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

    X
  • Joseph Heitman mail

    heitm001@duke.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Published: April 22, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000850

About the Authors

Edmond J. Byrnes III, Wenjun Li, Yonathan Lewit, Joseph Heitman
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
Hansong Ma, Kerstin Voelz, Robin C. May
Department of Molecular Pathobiology, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
Ping Ren, Vishnu Chaturvedi
Mycology Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, Albany, New York, United States of America
Dee A. Carter
Department of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Robert J. Bildfell
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: heitm001@duke.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: EJB WL YL DAC VC RCM JH. Performed the experiments: EJB WL YL HM KV PR. Analyzed the data: EJB WL YL HM KV PR DAC RJB RCM JH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: VC RJB JH. Wrote the paper: EJB WL YL JH.