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Research Article

Leprosy and the Adaptation of Human Toll-Like Receptor 1

  • Sunny H. Wong,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Sailesh Gochhait,

    Affiliation: National Centre of Applied Human Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

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  • Dheeraj Malhotra,

    Affiliation: National Centre of Applied Human Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

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  • Fredrik H. Pettersson,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Yik Y. Teo,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Chiea C. Khor,

    Affiliations: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Host Susceptibility to Infection Program, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore

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  • Anna Rautanen,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Stephen J. Chapman,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Tara C. Mills,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Amit Srivastava,

    Affiliation: National Centre of Applied Human Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

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  • Aleksey Rudko,

    Affiliation: Research Institute of Medical Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Tomsk, Russia

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  • Maxim B. Freidin,

    Affiliations: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Research Institute of Medical Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Tomsk, Russia

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  • Valery P. Puzyrev,

    Affiliation: Research Institute of Medical Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Tomsk, Russia

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  • Shafat Ali,

    Affiliation: National Centre of Applied Human Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

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  • Shweta Aggarwal,

    Affiliation: National Centre of Applied Human Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

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  • Rupali Chopra,

    Affiliation: National Centre of Applied Human Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

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  • Belum S. N. Reddy,

    Affiliation: Department of Dermatology and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Jai Prakash Hospital, New Delhi, India

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  • Vijay K. Garg,

    Affiliation: Department of Dermatology and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Jai Prakash Hospital, New Delhi, India

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  • Suchismita Roy,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Sarah Meisner,

    Affiliation: Bath Royal United Hospital Trust, Combe Park, Bath, United Kingdom

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  • Sunil K. Hazra,

    Affiliation: Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India

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  • Bibhuti Saha,

    Affiliation: Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India

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  • Sian Floyd,

    Affiliation: Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Brendan J. Keating,

    Affiliation: Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Cecilia Kim,

    Affiliation: Center for Applied Genomics, Abramson Research Center, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Benjamin P. Fairfax,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Julian C. Knight,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Philip C. Hill,

    Affiliation: MRC Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia

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  • Richard A. Adegbola,

    Affiliation: MRC Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia

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  • Hakon Hakonarson,

    Affiliation: Center for Applied Genomics, Abramson Research Center, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Paul E. M. Fine,

    Affiliation: Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Ramasamy M. Pitchappan,

    Affiliation: Centre for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India

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  • Rameshwar N. K. Bamezai,

    Affiliation: National Centre of Applied Human Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

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  • Adrian V. S. Hill,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Fredrik O. Vannberg mail

    vannberg@well.ox.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

    X
  • Published: July 01, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000979

About the Authors

Sunny H. Wong, Fredrik H. Pettersson, Yik Y. Teo, Chiea C. Khor, Anna Rautanen, Stephen J. Chapman, Tara C. Mills, Maxim B. Freidin, Suchismita Roy, Benjamin P. Fairfax, Julian C. Knight, Adrian V. S. Hill, Fredrik O. Vannberg
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Sailesh Gochhait, Dheeraj Malhotra, Amit Srivastava, Shafat Ali, Shweta Aggarwal, Rupali Chopra, Rameshwar N. K. Bamezai
National Centre of Applied Human Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
Chiea C. Khor
Host Susceptibility to Infection Program, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore
Aleksey Rudko, Maxim B. Freidin, Valery P. Puzyrev
Research Institute of Medical Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
Belum S. N. Reddy, Vijay K. Garg
Department of Dermatology and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Jai Prakash Hospital, New Delhi, India
Sarah Meisner
Bath Royal United Hospital Trust, Combe Park, Bath, United Kingdom
Sunil K. Hazra, Bibhuti Saha
Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India
Sian Floyd, Paul E. M. Fine
Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
Brendan J. Keating
Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Cecilia Kim, Hakon Hakonarson
Center for Applied Genomics, Abramson Research Center, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Philip C. Hill, Richard A. Adegbola
MRC Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
Ramasamy M. Pitchappan
Centre for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India

Corresponding Author

Email: vannberg@well.ox.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: S. Wong, C. Khor, A. Rautanen, S. Chapman, B. Keating, H. Hakonarson, P. Fine, R. Pitchappan, R. Bamezai, A. Hill, F. Vannberg. Performed the experiments: S. Wong, S. Gochhait, D. Malhotra, T. Mills, A. Srivastava, S. Ali, S. Aggarwal, R. Chopra, B. Keating, C. Kim, F. Vannberg. Analyzed the data: S. Wong, S. Gochhait, D. Malhotra, F. Pettersson, Y. Teo, A. Rautanen, A. Srivastava, S. Ali, S. Aggarwal, R. Chopra, S. Floyd, C. Kim, F. Vannberg. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: F. Pettersson, Y. Teo, C. Khor, T. Mills, A. Rudko, M. Freidin, V. Puzyrev, S. Ali, B. Reddy, V. Garg, S. Roy, S. Meisner, S. Hazra, B. Saha, B. Keating, B. Fairfax, J. Knight, P. Hill, R. Adegbola, H. Hakonarson, P. Fine, R. Pitchappan, R. Bamezai, A. Hill. Wrote the paper: S. Wong, A. Hill, F. Vannberg.