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Research Article

HIV-1 Populations in Semen Arise through Multiple Mechanisms

  • Jeffrey A. Anderson equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Jeffrey A. Anderson, Li-Hua Ping

    Affiliations: UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Lineberger Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Li-Hua Ping equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Jeffrey A. Anderson, Li-Hua Ping

    Affiliations: UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Lineberger Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Oliver Dibben,

    Affiliation: The Edward Jenner Institute for Vaccine Research, Compton, Berkshire, United Kingdom

    X
  • Cassandra B. Jabara,

    Affiliations: UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Lineberger Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Leslie Arney,

    Affiliations: UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Lineberger Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Laura Kincer,

    Affiliations: UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Lineberger Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Yuyang Tang,

    Affiliations: UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Lineberger Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Marcia Hobbs,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Irving Hoffman,

    Affiliations: UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Peter Kazembe,

    Affiliation: Baylor Pediatric Center of Excellence, Lilongwe, Malawi

    X
  • Corbin D. Jones,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Persephone Borrow,

    Affiliation: The Edward Jenner Institute for Vaccine Research, Compton, Berkshire, United Kingdom

    X
  • Susan Fiscus,

    Affiliations: UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Myron S. Cohen,

    Affiliations: UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Ronald Swanstrom mail,

    risunc@med.unc.edu

    Affiliations: UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Lineberger Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • and the Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology
  • Published: August 19, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001053

About the Authors

Jeffrey A. Anderson, Li-Hua Ping, Cassandra B. Jabara, Leslie Arney, Laura Kincer, Yuyang Tang, Irving Hoffman, Susan Fiscus, Myron S. Cohen, Ronald Swanstrom
UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
Jeffrey A. Anderson, Irving Hoffman, Susan Fiscus, Myron S. Cohen
Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
Jeffrey A. Anderson, Li-Hua Ping, Cassandra B. Jabara, Leslie Arney, Laura Kincer, Yuyang Tang, Ronald Swanstrom
Lineberger Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
Oliver Dibben, Persephone Borrow
The Edward Jenner Institute for Vaccine Research, Compton, Berkshire, United Kingdom
Cassandra B. Jabara, Corbin D. Jones
Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
Marcia Hobbs, Susan Fiscus, Myron S. Cohen, Ronald Swanstrom
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
Peter Kazembe
Baylor Pediatric Center of Excellence, Lilongwe, Malawi
Ronald Swanstrom
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: risunc@med.unc.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JAA LHP OD IH PK PB MSC RS. Performed the experiments: LHP OD LA LK YT RS. Analyzed the data: JAA LHP OD CBJ LK MH CDJ PB SF RS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JAA OD CBJ MH IH PK CDJ PB SF MSC. Wrote the paper: JAA LHP RS. Performed the cytokine and chemokine analyses and helped develop the model in Figure 5: OD PB. Performed all viral RNA load assays and managed the sample repository: SF.