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Research Article

A Bistable Switch and Anatomical Site Control Vibrio cholerae Virulence Gene Expression in the Intestine

  • Alex T. Nielsen,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Nadia A. Dolganov,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Thomas Rasmussen,

    Affiliation: Technical University of Denmark, Department of Systems Biology, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark

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  • Glen Otto,

    Affiliation: Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

    X
  • Michael C. Miller,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Stephen A. Felt,

    Affiliation: Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Stéphanie Torreilles,

    Affiliation: Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Gary K. Schoolnik mail

    Gary.Schoolnik@stanford.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Published: September 16, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001102

About the Authors

Alex T. Nielsen, Nadia A. Dolganov, Michael C. Miller, Gary K. Schoolnik
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America
Thomas Rasmussen
Technical University of Denmark, Department of Systems Biology, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Glen Otto, Stephen A. Felt, Stéphanie Torreilles
Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: Gary.Schoolnik@stanford.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: ATN NAD GKS. Performed the experiments: ATN NAD TR GO SAF ST. Analyzed the data: ATN NAD. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ATN NAD MCM. Wrote the paper: ATN GKS. Involved in performing all rabbit experiments and transcriptional analysis, and the first to identify the localized and significant expression of virulence genes in the mucus during infection: NAD.