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Research Article

Generation of Genic Diversity among Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains via Horizontal Gene Transfer during a Chronic Polyclonal Pediatric Infection

  • N. Luisa Hiller equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: N. Luisa Hiller, Azad Ahmed

    Affiliation: Allegheny General Hospital, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Center for Genomic Sciences, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Azad Ahmed equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: N. Luisa Hiller, Azad Ahmed

    Affiliation: Allegheny General Hospital, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Center for Genomic Sciences, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Evan Powell,

    Affiliation: Allegheny General Hospital, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Center for Genomic Sciences, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Darren P. Martin,

    Affiliation: Computational Biology Group, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

    X
  • Rory Eutsey,

    Affiliation: Allegheny General Hospital, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Center for Genomic Sciences, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Josh Earl,

    Affiliation: Allegheny General Hospital, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Center for Genomic Sciences, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Benjamin Janto,

    Affiliation: Allegheny General Hospital, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Center for Genomic Sciences, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Robert J. Boissy,

    Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, United States of America

    X
  • Justin Hogg,

    Affiliation: Allegheny General Hospital, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Center for Genomic Sciences, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Karen Barbadora,

    Affiliation: Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Rangarajan Sampath,

    Affiliation: Abbott Molecular IbisBiosciences Division, Carlsbad, California, United States of America

    X
  • Shaun Lonergan,

    Affiliation: Abbott Molecular IbisBiosciences Division, Carlsbad, California, United States of America

    X
  • J. Christopher Post,

    Affiliations: Allegheny General Hospital, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Center for Genomic Sciences, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Fen Z. Hu mail,

    gehrlich@wpahs.org (GDE) (FH); fhu@wpahs.org (FZH) (GE)

    Affiliations: Allegheny General Hospital, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Center for Genomic Sciences, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Garth D. Ehrlich mail

    gehrlich@wpahs.org (GDE) (FH); fhu@wpahs.org (FZH) (GE)

    Affiliations: Allegheny General Hospital, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Center for Genomic Sciences, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Published: September 16, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001108

About the Authors

N. Luisa Hiller, Azad Ahmed, Evan Powell, Rory Eutsey, Josh Earl, Benjamin Janto, Justin Hogg, J. Christopher Post, Fen Z. Hu, Garth D. Ehrlich
Allegheny General Hospital, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Center for Genomic Sciences, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Darren P. Martin
Computational Biology Group, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
Robert J. Boissy
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, United States of America
Karen Barbadora
Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Rangarajan Sampath, Shaun Lonergan
Abbott Molecular IbisBiosciences Division, Carlsbad, California, United States of America
J. Christopher Post, Fen Z. Hu, Garth D. Ehrlich
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
J. Christopher Post, Fen Z. Hu, Garth D. Ehrlich
Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: NLH JCP FZH GDE. Performed the experiments: NLH AA EP DPM RE JE BJ RS. Analyzed the data: NLH DPM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DPM RJB JH KB RS SL. Wrote the paper: NLH DPM GDE.