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Research Article

Distinct Clones of Yersinia pestis Caused the Black Death

  • Stephanie Haensch,

    Affiliation: Institute for Anthropology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany

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  • Raffaella Bianucci,

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Criminalistic Sciences Department of Anatomy, Pharmacology and Legal Medicine, University of Turin, Turin, Italy, Unité d'Anthropologie Bioculturelle, Faculté de Medecine, University of Mediterranean-CNRS-EFS, Marseille, France

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  • Michel Signoli,

    Affiliations: Unité d'Anthropologie Bioculturelle, Faculté de Medecine, University of Mediterranean-CNRS-EFS, Marseille, France, Centre d'Études Préhistoire, Antiquité, Moyen-âge, UMR 6130 CNRS–250 University of Nice, Valbonne, France

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  • Minoarisoa Rajerison,

    Affiliation: Center for Plague, Institute Pasteur de Madagascar, World Health Organization Collaborating, Antananarivo, Madagascar

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  • Michael Schultz,

    Affiliation: Department of Anatomy and Embryology Medical Faculty, Georg-August University, Göttingen, Germany

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  • Sacha Kacki,

    Affiliations: Inrap, Villeneuve-d'Ascq Archaeological Center, Villeneuve-d'Ascq, France, Laboratoire d'Anthropologie des Populations du Passé, Université Bordeaux 1, Talence, France

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  • Marco Vermunt,

    Affiliation: Department of Monuments and Archaeology, Municipality of Bergen op Zoom, Bergen op Zoom, The Netherlands

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  • Darlene A. Weston,

    Affiliations: Barge's Anthropologica, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands, Division of Archaeological Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom, Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

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  • Derek Hurst,

    Affiliation: Worcestershire Historic Environment and Archaeology Service, Worcestershire County Council, Worcester, United Kingdom

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  • Mark Achtman,

    Affiliation: Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland

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  • Elisabeth Carniel,

    Affiliation: Yersinia Research Unit, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

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  • Barbara Bramanti mail

    bramanti@uni-mainz.de

    Affiliation: Institute for Anthropology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany

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  • Published: October 07, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001134

About the Authors

Stephanie Haensch, Barbara Bramanti
Institute for Anthropology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
Raffaella Bianucci
Laboratory of Criminalistic Sciences Department of Anatomy, Pharmacology and Legal Medicine, University of Turin, Turin, Italy
Raffaella Bianucci, Michel Signoli
Unité d'Anthropologie Bioculturelle, Faculté de Medecine, University of Mediterranean-CNRS-EFS, Marseille, France
Michel Signoli
Centre d'Études Préhistoire, Antiquité, Moyen-âge, UMR 6130 CNRS–250 University of Nice, Valbonne, France
Minoarisoa Rajerison
Center for Plague, Institute Pasteur de Madagascar, World Health Organization Collaborating, Antananarivo, Madagascar
Michael Schultz
Department of Anatomy and Embryology Medical Faculty, Georg-August University, Göttingen, Germany
Sacha Kacki
Inrap, Villeneuve-d'Ascq Archaeological Center, Villeneuve-d'Ascq, France
Sacha Kacki
Laboratoire d'Anthropologie des Populations du Passé, Université Bordeaux 1, Talence, France
Marco Vermunt
Department of Monuments and Archaeology, Municipality of Bergen op Zoom, Bergen op Zoom, The Netherlands
Darlene A. Weston
Barge's Anthropologica, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Darlene A. Weston
Division of Archaeological Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom
Darlene A. Weston
Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
Derek Hurst
Worcestershire Historic Environment and Archaeology Service, Worcestershire County Council, Worcester, United Kingdom
Mark Achtman
Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
Elisabeth Carniel
Yersinia Research Unit, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

Corresponding Author

Email: bramanti@uni-mainz.de

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived the experiment: R. Bianucci, M. Schultz, B. Bramanti. Carried out aDNA research: S. Haensch, B. Bramanti. Performed the RDT analysis: R. Bianucci, M. Rajerison. Carried out the data analysis together with E. Carniel and M. Achtman: S. Haensch, B. Bramanti. Contributed with archaeological and historical data: M. Signoli, S. Kacki, M. Vermunt, D. Weston, D. Hurst. Wrote the paper: S. Haensch, M. Achtman, E. Carniel, B. Bramanti.