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Research Article

A Role for TLR4 in Clostridium difficile Infection and the Recognition of Surface Layer Proteins

  • Anthony Ryan,

    Affiliation: Immunomodulation Research Group, School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Ireland

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  • Mark Lynch,

    Affiliation: Immunomodulation Research Group, School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Ireland

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  • Sinead M. Smith,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Medicine and Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

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  • Sylvie Amu,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Medicine and Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

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  • Hendrik J. Nel,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Medicine and Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

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  • Claire E. McCoy,

    Affiliation: School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland

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  • Jennifer K. Dowling,

    Affiliation: Immunomodulation Research Group, School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Ireland

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  • Eve Draper,

    Affiliation: Immunomodulation Research Group, School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Ireland

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  • Vincent O'Reilly,

    Affiliation: Immunomodulation Research Group, School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Ireland

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  • Ciara McCarthy,

    Affiliation: Immunomodulation Research Group, School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Ireland

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  • Julie O'Brien,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Medicine and Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

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  • Déirdre Ní Eidhin,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Medicine and Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

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  • Mary J. O'Connell,

    Affiliation: Molecular Evolution Group, School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Ireland

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  • Brian Keogh,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Medicine and Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

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  • Charles O. Morton,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Microbiology, St James Hospital, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland

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  • Thomas R. Rogers,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Microbiology, St James Hospital, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland

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  • Padraic G. Fallon,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Medicine and Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

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  • Luke A. O'Neill,

    Affiliation: School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland

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  • Dermot Kelleher equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Dermot Kelleher, Christine E. Loscher

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Medicine and Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

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  • Christine E. Loscher equal contributor mail

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Dermot Kelleher, Christine E. Loscher

    Christine.loscher@dcu.ie

    Affiliation: Immunomodulation Research Group, School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Ireland

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  • Published: June 30, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002076

About the Authors

Anthony Ryan, Mark Lynch, Jennifer K. Dowling, Eve Draper, Vincent O'Reilly, Ciara McCarthy, Christine E. Loscher
Immunomodulation Research Group, School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Ireland
Sinead M. Smith, Sylvie Amu, Hendrik J. Nel, Julie O'Brien, Déirdre Ní Eidhin, Brian Keogh, Padraic G. Fallon, Dermot Kelleher
Department of Clinical Medicine and Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
Claire E. McCoy, Luke A. O'Neill
School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland
Mary J. O'Connell
Molecular Evolution Group, School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Ireland
Charles O. Morton, Thomas R. Rogers
Department of Clinical Microbiology, St James Hospital, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland

Corresponding Author

Email: Christine.loscher@dcu.ie

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: CEL BK PGF LAO DK. Performed the experiments: AR ML SMS SA HJL CEM JKD ED VO CM JO DNE COM PGF. Analyzed the data: CEL AR CEM JKD MJO PGF LAO DK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: CEL TRR. Wrote the paper: CEL.