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Research Article

Spatial Dynamics of Human-Origin H1 Influenza A Virus in North American Swine

  • Martha I. Nelson mail,

    nelsonma@mail.nih.gov

    Affiliation: Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Philippe Lemey,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

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  • Yi Tan,

    Affiliation: Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Amy Vincent,

    Affiliation: Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS, Ames, Iowa, United States of America

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  • Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Susan Detmer,

    Affiliation: The University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • Cécile Viboud,

    Affiliation: Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Marc A. Suchard,

    Affiliation: Departments of Biomathematics and Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, and Department of Biostatistics, UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • Andrew Rambaut,

    Affiliations: Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America, Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

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  • Edward C. Holmes,

    Affiliations: Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Marie Gramer

    Affiliation: The University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • Published: June 09, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002077

About the Authors

Martha I. Nelson, Yi Tan, Cécile Viboud, Andrew Rambaut, Edward C. Holmes
Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Philippe Lemey
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Amy Vincent
Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS, Ames, Iowa, United States of America
Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Edward C. Holmes
Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Susan Detmer, Marie Gramer
The University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America
Marc A. Suchard
Departments of Biomathematics and Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, and Department of Biostatistics, UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
Andrew Rambaut
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: nelsonma@mail.nih.gov

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MIN PL MAS AR ECH. Performed the experiments: AV SD MG. Analyzed the data: MIN PL YT TTYL MAS CV AR ECH. Wrote the paper: MIN PL AV CV MAS AR ECH MG.