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Research Article

In vivo Hypoxia and a Fungal Alcohol Dehydrogenase Influence the Pathogenesis of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

  • Nora Grahl,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America

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  • Srisombat Puttikamonkul,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America

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  • Jeffrey M. Macdonald,

    Affiliation: Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Michael P. Gamcsik,

    Affiliation: Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Lisa Y. Ngo,

    Affiliation: Infectious Disease Sciences, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Tobias M. Hohl,

    Affiliation: Infectious Disease Sciences, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Robert A. Cramer mail

    rcramer@montana.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America

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  • Published: July 21, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002145

About the Authors

Nora Grahl, Srisombat Puttikamonkul, Robert A. Cramer
Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America
Jeffrey M. Macdonald, Michael P. Gamcsik
Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America
Lisa Y. Ngo, Tobias M. Hohl
Infectious Disease Sciences, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: rcramer@montana.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: NG JMM MPG TMH RAC. Performed the experiments: NG SP JMM MPG LYN TMH RAC. Analyzed the data: NG SP JMM MPG LYN TMH RAC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JMM MPG RAC. Wrote the paper: NG RAC.