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Research Article

Genomic Insights into the Origin of Parasitism in the Emerging Plant Pathogen Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

  • Taisei Kikuchi mail,

    kikuchit@affrc.go.jp

    Affiliations: Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan, Parasite Genomics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

    X
  • James A. Cotton ,

    Affiliation: Parasite Genomics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

    These authors contributed equally as second authors.

    X
  • Jonathan J. Dalzell ,

    Affiliation: Molecular Biosciences-Parasitology, Institute of Agri-Food and Land Use, School of Biological Sciences, Medical Biology Centre, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

    These authors contributed equally as second authors.

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  • Koichi Hasegawa ,

    Affiliation: College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chubu University, Kasugai, Japan

    These authors contributed equally as second authors.

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  • Natsumi Kanzaki ,

    Affiliation: Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan

    These authors contributed equally as second authors.

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  • Paul McVeigh ,

    Affiliation: Molecular Biosciences-Parasitology, Institute of Agri-Food and Land Use, School of Biological Sciences, Medical Biology Centre, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

    These authors contributed equally as second authors.

    X
  • Takuma Takanashi ,

    Affiliations: Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan, Neurosensing and Bionavigation Research Center, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto, Japan

    These authors contributed equally as second authors.

    X
  • Isheng J. Tsai ,

    Affiliation: Parasite Genomics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

    These authors contributed equally as second authors.

    X
  • Samuel A. Assefa,

    Affiliation: Parasite Genomics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Peter J. A. Cock,

    Affiliation: Plant Pathology Programme, The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, United Kingdom

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  • Thomas Dan Otto,

    Affiliation: Parasite Genomics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Martin Hunt,

    Affiliation: Parasite Genomics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Adam J. Reid,

    Affiliation: Parasite Genomics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Alejandro Sanchez-Flores,

    Affiliation: Parasite Genomics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Kazuko Tsuchihara,

    Affiliation: Neurosensing and Bionavigation Research Center, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto, Japan

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  • Toshiro Yokoi,

    Affiliation: Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan

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  • Mattias C. Larsson,

    Affiliations: Neurosensing and Bionavigation Research Center, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto, Japan, Department of Plant Protection Biology, Division of Chemical Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden

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  • Johji Miwa,

    Affiliation: College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chubu University, Kasugai, Japan

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  • Aaron G. Maule,

    Affiliation: Molecular Biosciences-Parasitology, Institute of Agri-Food and Land Use, School of Biological Sciences, Medical Biology Centre, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

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  • Norio Sahashi,

    Affiliation: Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan

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  • John T. Jones,

    Affiliation: Neurosensing and Bionavigation Research Center, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto, Japan

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  • Matthew Berriman

    Affiliation: Parasite Genomics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Published: September 01, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002219

About the Authors

Taisei Kikuchi, Natsumi Kanzaki, Takuma Takanashi, Toshiro Yokoi, Norio Sahashi
Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan
Taisei Kikuchi, James A. Cotton, Isheng J. Tsai, Samuel A. Assefa, Thomas Dan Otto, Martin Hunt, Adam J. Reid, Alejandro Sanchez-Flores, Matthew Berriman
Parasite Genomics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom
Jonathan J. Dalzell, Paul McVeigh, Aaron G. Maule
Molecular Biosciences-Parasitology, Institute of Agri-Food and Land Use, School of Biological Sciences, Medical Biology Centre, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom
Koichi Hasegawa, Johji Miwa
College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chubu University, Kasugai, Japan
Takuma Takanashi, Kazuko Tsuchihara, Mattias C. Larsson, John T. Jones
Neurosensing and Bionavigation Research Center, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto, Japan
Peter J. A. Cock
Plant Pathology Programme, The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, United Kingdom
Mattias C. Larsson
Department of Plant Protection Biology, Division of Chemical Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden

Corresponding Author

Email: kikuchit@affrc.go.jp

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: TK JTJ NK NS MB. Performed the experiments: ASF AJR IJT TDO MH TK. Analyzed the data: JJD PM TT KT MCL SAA IJT PJAC KH JM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: NK TY. Wrote the paper: TK JTJ JAC AGM MB. Contributed equally as second authors: JAC JJD KH NK PM TT IJT. Assembled the genome and directed annotation: ASF AJR IJT TDO MH TK. Analyzed RNAi pathway and neuropeptides: JJD PM AGM. Analyzed effector analysis: PJAC JTJ. Analyzed embryogenesis and stress response: KH JM. Repeat analysis: IJT. orthMCL and HGT analysis: JAC. Peptidase analysis: SAA. Chemoreception analysis: TT KT MCL.