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Research Article

Chikungunya Virus Neutralization Antigens and Direct Cell-to-Cell Transmission Are Revealed by Human Antibody-Escape Mutants

  • Chia Yin Lee,

    Affiliation: Singapore Immunology Network, BMSI, A*STAR, Singapore

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  • Yiu-Wing Kam,

    Affiliation: Singapore Immunology Network, BMSI, A*STAR, Singapore

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  • Jan Fric,

    Affiliation: Singapore Immunology Network, BMSI, A*STAR, Singapore

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  • Benoit Malleret,

    Affiliation: Singapore Immunology Network, BMSI, A*STAR, Singapore

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  • Esther G. L. Koh,

    Affiliation: Singapore Immunology Network, BMSI, A*STAR, Singapore

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  • Celine Prakash,

    Affiliation: Singapore Immunology Network, BMSI, A*STAR, Singapore

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  • Wen Huang,

    Affiliation: Singapore Immunology Network, BMSI, A*STAR, Singapore

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  • Wendy W. L. Lee,

    Affiliation: Singapore Immunology Network, BMSI, A*STAR, Singapore

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  • Cui Lin,

    Affiliation: National Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Singapore

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  • Raymond T. P. Lin,

    Affiliations: National Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Singapore, Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore

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  • Laurent Renia,

    Affiliation: Singapore Immunology Network, BMSI, A*STAR, Singapore

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  • Cheng-I Wang,

    Affiliation: Singapore Immunology Network, BMSI, A*STAR, Singapore

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  • Lisa F. P. Ng,

    Affiliations: Singapore Immunology Network, BMSI, A*STAR, Singapore, Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore

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  • Lucile Warter mail

    warterlucile@gmail.com

    Affiliation: Singapore Immunology Network, BMSI, A*STAR, Singapore

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  • Published: December 01, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002390

About the Authors

Chia Yin Lee, Yiu-Wing Kam, Jan Fric, Benoit Malleret, Esther G. L. Koh, Celine Prakash, Wen Huang, Wendy W. L. Lee, Laurent Renia, Cheng-I Wang, Lisa F. P. Ng, Lucile Warter
Singapore Immunology Network, BMSI, A*STAR, Singapore
Cui Lin, Raymond T. P. Lin
National Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Singapore
Raymond T. P. Lin, Lisa F. P. Ng
Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Corresponding Author

Email: warterlucile@gmail.com

Competing Interests

I have read the journal's policy and have the following conflicts; Chia Yin LEE and Lucile WARTER are inventors in a pending patent.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: CYL, JF, BM, LR, LFPN, LW. Performed the experiments: CYL, YWK, JF, BM, EGLK, WH, LW. Analyzed the data: CYL, YWK, JF, BM, EGLK, CP, WWLL, LR, CIW, LFPN, LW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: CL, RTPL. Wrote the paper: LW.