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Research Article

Nasal Acai Polysaccharides Potentiate Innate Immunity to Protect against Pulmonary Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia pseudomallei Infections

  • Jerod A. Skyberg mail,

    jskyberg@montana.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America

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  • MaryClare F. Rollins,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America

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  • Jeff S. Holderness,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America

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  • Nicole L. Marlenee,

    Affiliations: Rocky Mountain Regional Center for Excellence in Bioterrorism and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America

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  • Igor A. Schepetkin,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America

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  • Andrew Goodyear,

    Affiliations: Rocky Mountain Regional Center for Excellence in Bioterrorism and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America

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  • Steven W. Dow,

    Affiliations: Rocky Mountain Regional Center for Excellence in Bioterrorism and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America

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  • Mark A. Jutila,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America

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  • David W. Pascual

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America

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  • Published: March 15, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002587

About the Authors

Jerod A. Skyberg, MaryClare F. Rollins, Jeff S. Holderness, Igor A. Schepetkin, Mark A. Jutila, David W. Pascual
Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America
Nicole L. Marlenee, Andrew Goodyear, Steven W. Dow
Rocky Mountain Regional Center for Excellence in Bioterrorism and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America
Nicole L. Marlenee, Andrew Goodyear, Steven W. Dow
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: jskyberg@montana.edu

Competing Interests

I have read the Journal's policy and we have the following conflicts: MAJ holds shares in LigoCyte Pharmaceuticals, which together with Montana State University, held a National Institutes of Health contract that partially funded this work. LigoCyte Pharmaceuticals had no monetary or intellectual input toward the research nor the interpretation of this report. A provisional patent application of the therapeutic use of the Acai-derived polysaccharides has been submitted on behalf of JAS, JSH, IAS, MAJ, and DWP. Acai extract is contained in many commercial products. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the journal policies on sharing data and materials. All other authors have no financial conflict of interest.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JAS MAJ DWP. Performed the experiments: JAS MFR JSH NLM. Analyzed the data: JAS MAJ DWP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JAS JSH IAS AG SWD. Wrote the paper: JAS DWP.