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Research Article

Phenoloxidase Activity Acts as a Mosquito Innate Immune Response against Infection with Semliki Forest Virus

  • Julio Rodriguez-Andres,

    Affiliations: The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, United Kingdom, MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, United Kingdom

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  • Seema Rani,

    Affiliation: The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, United Kingdom

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  • Margus Varjak,

    Affiliation: Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

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  • Margo E. Chase-Topping,

    Affiliation: Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, Ashworth Laboratories, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

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  • Markus H. Beck,

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Mhairi C. Ferguson,

    Affiliation: The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, United Kingdom

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  • Esther Schnettler,

    Affiliations: The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, United Kingdom, MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, United Kingdom

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  • Rennos Fragkoudis,

    Affiliation: The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, United Kingdom

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  • Gerald Barry,

    Affiliation: The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, United Kingdom

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  • Andres Merits,

    Affiliation: Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

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  • John K. Fazakerley,

    Affiliation: The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, United Kingdom

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  • Michael R. Strand mail,

    mrstrand@uga.edu (MRS); alain.kohl@glasgow.ac.uk (AK)

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Alain Kohl mail

    mrstrand@uga.edu (MRS); alain.kohl@glasgow.ac.uk (AK)

    Affiliations: The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, United Kingdom, MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, United Kingdom

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  • Published: November 08, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002977

About the Authors

Julio Rodriguez-Andres, Seema Rani, Mhairi C. Ferguson, Esther Schnettler, Rennos Fragkoudis, Gerald Barry, John K. Fazakerley, Alain Kohl
The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, United Kingdom
Julio Rodriguez-Andres, Esther Schnettler, Alain Kohl
MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, United Kingdom
Margus Varjak, Andres Merits
Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
Margo E. Chase-Topping
Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, Ashworth Laboratories, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Markus H. Beck, Michael R. Strand
Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JRA MRS JKF AK. Performed the experiments: JRA SR MV MHB MCF RF ES GB. Analyzed the data: JRA MECT MHB MRS JKF AK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MRS AM. Wrote the paper: AK MRS JRA JKF.