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Research Article

SIVagm Infection in Wild African Green Monkeys from South Africa: Epidemiology, Natural History, and Evolutionary Considerations

  • Dongzhu Ma equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Dongzhu Ma, Anna Jasinska

    Affiliation: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Anna Jasinska equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Dongzhu Ma, Anna Jasinska

    Affiliation: Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

    X
  • Jan Kristoff,

    Affiliation: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • J. Paul Grobler,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa

    X
  • Trudy Turner,

    Affiliations: Department of Genetics, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa, Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America

    X
  • Yoon Jung,

    Affiliation: Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

    X
  • Christopher Schmitt,

    Affiliation: Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

    X
  • Kevin Raehtz,

    Affiliation: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Felix Feyertag,

    Affiliation: Computational and Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

    X
  • Natalie Martinez Sosa,

    Affiliation: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Viskam Wijewardana,

    Affiliation: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Donald S. Burke,

    Affiliation: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • David L. Robertson,

    Affiliation: Computational and Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

    X
  • Russell Tracy,

    Affiliation: Departments of Pathology and Biochemistry, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America

    X
  • Ivona Pandrea,

    Affiliations: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Nelson Freimer,

    Affiliation: Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

    X
  • Cristian Apetrei, for “The International Vervet Research Consortium” mail

    apetreic@pitt.edu

    Affiliations: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Published: January 17, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003011

About the Authors

Dongzhu Ma, Jan Kristoff, Kevin Raehtz, Natalie Martinez Sosa, Viskam Wijewardana, Donald S. Burke, Ivona Pandrea, Cristian Apetrei
Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Anna Jasinska, Yoon Jung, Christopher Schmitt, Nelson Freimer
Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
J. Paul Grobler, Trudy Turner
Department of Genetics, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
Trudy Turner
Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America
Felix Feyertag, David L. Robertson
Computational and Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
Russell Tracy
Departments of Pathology and Biochemistry, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America
Ivona Pandrea
Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Cristian Apetrei
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: apetreic@pitt.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Collected and processed the samples: AJ JPG TT YJ CS NF. Conceived and designed the experiments: DM AJ IP NF DLR CA. Performed the experiments: DM JK KR NMS VW DSB FF DLR RT IP CA. Analyzed the data: CA IP NF AJ DLR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DSB RT DLR FF. Wrote the paper: DM AJ DLR IP NF CA.