Advertisement
Research Article

Sensitivity of Mitochondrial Transcription and Resistance of RNA Polymerase II Dependent Nuclear Transcription to Antiviral Ribonucleosides

  • Jamie J. Arnold mail,

    jja5@psu.edu (JJA); cec9@psu.edu (CEC)

    Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Suresh D. Sharma,

    Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Joy Y. Feng,

    Affiliation: Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, California, United States of America

    X
  • Adrian S. Ray,

    Affiliation: Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, California, United States of America

    X
  • Eric D. Smidansky,

    Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Maria L. Kireeva,

    Affiliation: Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, NCI, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Aesop Cho,

    Affiliation: Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, California, United States of America

    X
  • Jason Perry,

    Affiliation: Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, California, United States of America

    X
  • Jennifer E. Vela,

    Affiliation: Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, California, United States of America

    X
  • Yeojin Park,

    Affiliation: Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, California, United States of America

    X
  • Yili Xu,

    Affiliation: Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, California, United States of America

    X
  • Yang Tian,

    Affiliation: Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, California, United States of America

    X
  • Darius Babusis,

    Affiliation: Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, California, United States of America

    X
  • Ona Barauskus,

    Affiliation: Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, California, United States of America

    X
  • Blake R. Peterson,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicinal Chemistry, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, United States of America

    X
  • Averell Gnatt,

    Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Mikhail Kashlev,

    Affiliation: Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, NCI, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Weidong Zhong,

    Affiliation: Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, California, United States of America

    Current address: Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Emeryville, California, United States of America.

    X
  • Craig E. Cameron mail

    jja5@psu.edu (JJA); cec9@psu.edu (CEC)

    Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Published: November 15, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003030

About the Authors

Jamie J. Arnold, Suresh D. Sharma, Eric D. Smidansky, Craig E. Cameron
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Joy Y. Feng, Adrian S. Ray, Aesop Cho, Jason Perry, Jennifer E. Vela, Yeojin Park, Yili Xu, Yang Tian, Darius Babusis, Ona Barauskus, Weidong Zhong
Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, California, United States of America
Maria L. Kireeva, Mikhail Kashlev
Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, NCI, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America
Blake R. Peterson
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, United States of America
Averell Gnatt
Department of Pharmacology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

JYF, ASR, AC, JP, JEV, YP, YX, YT, DB, OB and WZ are current or former employees and shareholders of Gilead Sciences, Inc. that is responsible for the active clinical development of GS-7977 and has a partnership with Roche related to the development of mericitabine. JJA and CEC are collaborating with INDIGO Biosciences, Inc. for the development and distribution of mitochondrial toxicity assays. This does not alter our adherence to all PLOS Pathogens policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JJA SDS JYF ASR EDS MLK MK WZ CEC. Performed the experiments: JJA SDS JYF ASR EDS MLK AC JP JEV YP YX YT DB OB. Analyzed the data: JJA SDS JYF ASR EDS MLK MK CEC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JYF ASR BRP AG MK WZ CEC. Wrote the paper: JJA JYF ASR EDS MLK CEC.