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Research Article

IL-1β Signaling Promotes CNS-Intrinsic Immune Control of West Nile Virus Infection

  • Hilario J. Ramos,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Marion C. Lanteri,

    Affiliation: Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Gabriele Blahnik,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Amina Negash,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Mehul S. Suthar,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Margaret M. Brassil,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Khushbu Sodhi,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Piper M. Treuting,

    Affiliation: Department of Comparative Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Michael P. Busch,

    Affiliations: Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Philip J. Norris,

    Affiliations: Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Michael Gale Jr. mail

    mgale@u.washington.edu

    Affiliations: Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Department of Microbiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Published: November 29, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003039

About the Authors

Hilario J. Ramos, Gabriele Blahnik, Amina Negash, Mehul S. Suthar, Margaret M. Brassil, Khushbu Sodhi, Michael Gale Jr.
Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Marion C. Lanteri, Michael P. Busch, Philip J. Norris
Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Piper M. Treuting
Department of Comparative Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Michael P. Busch, Philip J. Norris
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Michael P. Busch, Philip J. Norris
Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Michael Gale Jr.
Department of Microbiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: mgale@u.washington.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: HJR MG MCL PJN MPB. Performed the experiments: HJR MCL GB MMB KS AN MSS PMT. Analyzed the data: HJR MCL PMT. Wrote the paper: HJR MG.