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Research Article

A Trade-off between the Fitness Cost of Functional Integrases and Long-term Stability of Integrons

  • Irina Starikova,

    Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway

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  • Klaus Harms,

    Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway

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  • Pål Haugen,

    Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway

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  • Tracy T. M. Lunde,

    Affiliation: Reference Centre for Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance, Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway

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  • Raul Primicerio,

    Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway

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  • Ørjan Samuelsen,

    Affiliation: Reference Centre for Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance, Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway

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  • Kaare M. Nielsen,

    Affiliations: Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway, GenØk, Center for Biosafety, Research Park, Tromsø, Norway

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  • Pål J. Johnsen mail

    paal.johnsen@uit.no

    Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway

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  • Published: November 29, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003043

About the Authors

Irina Starikova, Klaus Harms, Pål Haugen, Raul Primicerio, Kaare M. Nielsen, Pål J. Johnsen
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway
Tracy T. M. Lunde, Ørjan Samuelsen
Reference Centre for Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance, Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway
Kaare M. Nielsen
GenØk, Center for Biosafety, Research Park, Tromsø, Norway

Corresponding Author

Email: paal.johnsen@uit.no

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: PJJ KMN ØS RP PH KH IS. Performed the experiments: IS KH TTML PH RP. Analyzed the data: IS PJJ KH TTML PH RP ØS KMN. Wrote the paper: PJJ IS KH PH KMN.