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Research Article

Transmission of Equine Influenza Virus during an Outbreak Is Characterized by Frequent Mixed Infections and Loose Transmission Bottlenecks

  • Joseph Hughes,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

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  • Richard C. Allen,

    Affiliation: Disease Dynamics Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Marc Baguelin,

    Affiliations: Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom, Centre for Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Katie Hampson,

    Affiliation: Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health, Institute for Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

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  • Gregory J. Baillie,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Debra Elton,

    Affiliation: Animal Health Trust, Centre for Preventive Medicine, Lanwades Park, Newmarket, United Kingdom

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  • J. Richard Newton,

    Affiliation: Animal Health Trust, Centre for Preventive Medicine, Lanwades Park, Newmarket, United Kingdom

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  • Paul Kellam,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • James L. N. Wood,

    Affiliation: Disease Dynamics Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Edward C. Holmes,

    Affiliations: Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Fogarty International Center, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Pablo R. Murcia mail

    Pablo.Murcia@Glasgow.ac.uk

    Affiliations: Medical Research Council-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom, Disease Dynamics Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Published: December 20, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003081

About the Authors

Joseph Hughes, Pablo R. Murcia
Medical Research Council-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom
Richard C. Allen, James L. N. Wood, Pablo R. Murcia
Disease Dynamics Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Marc Baguelin
Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom
Marc Baguelin
Centre for Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
Katie Hampson
Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health, Institute for Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom
Gregory J. Baillie, Paul Kellam
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Debra Elton, J. Richard Newton
Animal Health Trust, Centre for Preventive Medicine, Lanwades Park, Newmarket, United Kingdom
Edward C. Holmes
Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Edward C. Holmes
Fogarty International Center, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: Pablo.Murcia@Glasgow.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: PRM. Performed the experiments: RCA. Analyzed the data: JH PRM ECH MB KH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DE JRN PK GJB. Wrote the paper: JH PRM ECH JLNW MB KH.