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Research Article

A Strong Immune Response in Young Adult Honeybees Masks Their Increased Susceptibility to Infection Compared to Older Bees

  • James C. Bull,

    Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom

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  • Eugene V. Ryabov,

    Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom

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  • Gill Prince,

    Affiliation: School of Life Sciences and Warwick Crop Centre, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne Campus, Wellesbourne, Warwickshire, United Kingdom

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  • Andrew Mead,

    Affiliation: School of Life Sciences and Warwick Crop Centre, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne Campus, Wellesbourne, Warwickshire, United Kingdom

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  • Cunjin Zhang,

    Affiliation: School of Life Sciences and Warwick Crop Centre, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne Campus, Wellesbourne, Warwickshire, United Kingdom

    Current address: School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom.

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  • Laura A. Baxter,

    Affiliation: Warwick Systems Biology Centre, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom

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  • Judith K. Pell,

    Affiliation: Centre for Soils and Ecosystem Function, Department of Plant and Invertebrate Ecology, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom

    Current address: J.K. Pell Consulting, Luton, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom.

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  • Juliet L. Osborne,

    Affiliation: Centre for Soils and Ecosystem Function, Department of Plant and Invertebrate Ecology, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom

    Current address: Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom.

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  • Dave Chandler mail

    dave.chandler@warwick.ac.uk

    Affiliation: School of Life Sciences and Warwick Crop Centre, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne Campus, Wellesbourne, Warwickshire, United Kingdom

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  • Published: December 27, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003083

About the Authors

James C. Bull, Eugene V. Ryabov
School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom
Gill Prince, Andrew Mead, Cunjin Zhang, Dave Chandler
School of Life Sciences and Warwick Crop Centre, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne Campus, Wellesbourne, Warwickshire, United Kingdom
Laura A. Baxter
Warwick Systems Biology Centre, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom
Judith K. Pell, Juliet L. Osborne
Centre for Soils and Ecosystem Function, Department of Plant and Invertebrate Ecology, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: dave.chandler@warwick.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: DC JCB EVR JKP. Performed the experiments: EVR GP CZ JKP JLO DC. Analyzed the data: JCB AM LAB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LAB AM JCB JLO. Wrote the paper: DC JCB.