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Research Article

Human Tetherin Exerts Strong Selection Pressure on the HIV-1 Group N Vpu Protein

  • Daniel Sauter,

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany

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  • Daniel Unterweger,

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany

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  • Michael Vogl,

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany

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  • Shariq M. Usmani,

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany

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  • Anke Heigele,

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany

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  • Silvia F. Kluge,

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany

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  • Elisabeth Hermkes,

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany

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  • Markus Moll,

    Affiliation: Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Edward Barker,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Martine Peeters,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire Retrovirus UMR145, IRD and Université Montpellier, BP64501, Montpellier, France

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  • Gerald H. Learn,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Frederic Bibollet-Ruche,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Joëlle V. Fritz,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Oliver T. Fackler,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Beatrice H. Hahn,

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Frank Kirchhoff mail

    frank.kirchhoff@uni-ulm.de

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany

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  • Published: December 20, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003093

About the Authors

Daniel Sauter, Daniel Unterweger, Michael Vogl, Shariq M. Usmani, Anke Heigele, Silvia F. Kluge, Elisabeth Hermkes, Frank Kirchhoff
Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany
Markus Moll
Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
Edward Barker
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
Martine Peeters
Laboratoire Retrovirus UMR145, IRD and Université Montpellier, BP64501, Montpellier, France
Gerald H. Learn, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Beatrice H. Hahn
Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Joëlle V. Fritz, Oliver T. Fackler
Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
Beatrice H. Hahn
Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: frank.kirchhoff@uni-ulm.de

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: DS SMU JVF OTF FK. Performed the experiments: DS DU MV SMU AH SFK EH FBR GHL JVF. Analyzed the data: DS DU MV SMU AH SFK EH FBR GHL JVF FK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MM EB MP. Wrote the paper: BHH FK.