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Research Article

The Roles of Competition and Mutation in Shaping Antigenic and Genetic Diversity in Influenza

  • Daniel Zinder,

    Affiliation: University of Michigan, Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Trevor Bedford,

    Affiliation: University of Edinburgh, Institute of Evolutionary Biology, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

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  • Sunetra Gupta,

    Affiliation: University of Oxford, Department of Zoology, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Mercedes Pascual mail

    pascual@umich.edu

    Affiliations: University of Michigan, Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America, Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States of America

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  • Published: January 03, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003104

About the Authors

Daniel Zinder, Mercedes Pascual
University of Michigan, Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Trevor Bedford
University of Edinburgh, Institute of Evolutionary Biology, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Sunetra Gupta
University of Oxford, Department of Zoology, Oxford, United Kingdom
Mercedes Pascual
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Mercedes Pascual
Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: pascual@umich.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: DZ TB SG MP. Performed the experiments: DZ TB. Analyzed the data: DZ TB MP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DZ TB. Wrote the paper: DZ TB SG MP.