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Research Article

HIV-1 Superinfection Occurs Less Frequently Than Initial Infection in a Cohort of High-Risk Kenyan Women

  • Keshet Ronen,

    Affiliation: Human Biology Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Connor O. McCoy,

    Affiliation: Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Frederick A. Matsen,

    Affiliation: Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • David F. Boyd,

    Affiliation: Human Biology Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Sandra Emery,

    Affiliation: Human Biology Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Katherine Odem-Davis,

    Affiliation: Human Biology Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Walter Jaoko,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Kishor Mandaliya,

    Affiliation: Coast Provincial General Hospital, Women's Health Project, Mombasa, Kenya

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  • R. Scott McClelland,

    Affiliations: Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Barbra A. Richardson,

    Affiliations: Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Julie Overbaugh mail

    joverbau@fhcrc.org

    Affiliations: Human Biology Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Published: August 29, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003593

About the Authors

Keshet Ronen, David F. Boyd, Sandra Emery, Katherine Odem-Davis, Julie Overbaugh
Human Biology Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Connor O. McCoy, Frederick A. Matsen, Barbra A. Richardson, Julie Overbaugh
Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Walter Jaoko, R. Scott McClelland
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya
Kishor Mandaliya
Coast Provincial General Hospital, Women's Health Project, Mombasa, Kenya
R. Scott McClelland, Barbra A. Richardson
Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Barbra A. Richardson
Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Barbra A. Richardson
Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: joverbau@fhcrc.org

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JO KR. Performed the experiments: KR DFB SE. Analyzed the data: COM FAM KR KOD BAR RSM JO. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: COM FAM KM WJ. Wrote the paper: KR JO.