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Table of Contents: July 2015

COVER

Antibody Recognition of RSV F

Image Credit: Morgan SA Gilman
Issue Image

The prefusion conformation of the respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein (RSV F) is a major target for the development of vaccines, protective antibodies and small molecules. The potently neutralizing antibody AM14 is unique in its ability to specifically recognize the trimeric, furin-cleaved, prefusion conformation of RSV F. The structure shown is the RSV F protein bound to three AM14 Fabs and three motavizumab Fabs, viewed looking down toward the viral membrane. McLellan et al.

Opinion

Mosquitoes Reset Malaria Parasites

Philip J. Spence, Thibaut Brugat, Jean Langhorne

Pearls

Periodontal Diseases: Bug Induced, Host Promoted

Shariq A. Khan, Eric F. Kong, Timothy F. Meiller, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk

On and Under the Skin: Emerging Basidiomycetous Yeast Infections Caused by Trichosporon Species

Marçal Mariné, Neil Andrew Brown, Diego Mauricio Riaño-Pachón, Gustavo Henrique Goldman

Cross Kingdom Activators of Five Classes of Bacterial Effectors

David M. Anderson, Jimmy B. Feix, Dara W. Frank

Turning Up the Heat: Inflammasome Activation by Fungal Pathogens

Aldo Henrique Tavares, Pedro Henrique Bürgel, Anamélia Lorenzetti Bocca

RNA Virus Reassortment: An Evolutionary Mechanism for Host Jumps and Immune Evasion

Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna, Reshmi Mukerji, Gavin J. D. Smith

Review

The DSF Family of Cell–Cell Signals: An Expanding Class of Bacterial Virulence Regulators

Robert P. Ryan, Shi-qi An, John H. Allan, Yvonne McCarthy, J. Maxwell Dow

Research Articles

EhVps32 Is a Vacuole-Associated Protein Involved in Pinocytosis and Phagocytosis of Entamoeaba histolytica

Yunuen Avalos-Padilla, Abigail Betanzos, Rosario Javier-Reyna, Guillermina García-Rivera, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, Anel Lagunes-Guillén, Jaime Ortega, Esther Orozco

An In-Depth Comparison of Latency-Reversing Agent Combinations in Various In Vitro and Ex Vivo HIV-1 Latency Models Identified Bryostatin-1+JQ1 and Ingenol-B+JQ1 to Potently Reactivate Viral Gene Expression

Gilles Darcis, Anna Kula, Sophie Bouchat, Koh Fujinaga, Francis Corazza, Amina Ait-Ammar, Nadège Delacourt, Adeline Melard, Kabamba Kabeya, Caroline Vanhulle, Benoit Van Driessche, Jean-Stéphane Gatot, Thomas Cherrier, Luiz F. Pianowski, Lucio Gama, Christian Schwartz, Jorge Vila, Arsène Burny, Nathan Clumeck, Michel Moutschen, Stéphane De Wit, B. Matija Peterlin, Christine Rouzioux, Olivier Rohr, Carine Van Lint

Synergistic Reactivation of Latent HIV Expression by Ingenol-3-Angelate, PEP005, Targeted NF-kB Signaling in Combination with JQ1 Induced p-TEFb Activation

Guochun Jiang, Erica A. Mendes, Philipp Kaiser, Daniel P. Wong, Yuyang Tang, Ivy Cai, Anne Fenton, Gregory P. Melcher, James E. K. Hildreth, George R. Thompson, Joseph K. Wong, Satya Dandekar

Ubiquilin 1 Promotes IFN-γ-Induced Xenophagy of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Erik T. Sakowski, Stefan Koster, Cynthia Portal Celhay, Heidi S. Park, Elina Shrestha, Stefanie E. Hetzenecker, Katie Maurer, Ken Cadwell, Jennifer A. Philips

An Internally Translated MAVS Variant Exposes Its Amino-terminal TRAF-Binding Motifs to Deregulate Interferon Induction

Arlet Minassian, Junjie Zhang, Shanping He, Jun Zhao, Ebrahim Zandi, Takeshi Saito, Chengyu Liang, Pinghui Feng

A Novel Antiviral Target Structure Involved in the RNA Binding, Dimerization, and Nuclear Export Functions of the Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein

Michinori Kakisaka, Yutaka Sasaki, Kazunori Yamada, Yasumitsu Kondoh, Hirokazu Hikono, Hiroyuki Osada, Kentaro Tomii, Takehiko Saito, Yoko Aida

IL-27 Signaling Is Crucial for Survival of Mice Infected with African Trypanosomes via Preventing Lethal Effects of CD4+ T Cells and IFN-γ

Gongguan Liu, Jinjun Xu, Hui Wu, Donglei Sun, Xiquan Zhang, Xiaoping Zhu, Stefan Magez, Meiqing Shi

A Comprehensive Analysis of Replicating Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Genomes Delineates the Viral Transcription Program and Suggests a Role for mcv-miR-M1 in Episomal Persistence

Juliane Marie Theiss, Thomas Günther, Malik Alawi, Friederike Neumann, Uwe Tessmer, Nicole Fischer, Adam Grundhoff

Identification of Caspase Cleavage Sites in KSHV Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen and Their Effects on Caspase-Related Host Defense Responses

David A. Davis, Nicole E. Naiman, Victoria Wang, Prabha Shrestha, Muzammel Haque, Duosha Hu, Holda A. Anagho, Robert F. Carey, Katharine S. Davidoff, Robert Yarchoan

Human Enterovirus Nonstructural Protein 2CATPase Functions as Both an RNA Helicase and ATP-Independent RNA Chaperone

Hongjie Xia, Peipei Wang, Guang-Chuan Wang, Jie Yang, Xianlin Sun, Wenzhe Wu, Yang Qiu, Ting Shu, Xiaolu Zhao, Lei Yin, Cheng-Feng Qin, Yuanyang Hu, Xi Zhou

Age-Dependent Cell Trafficking Defects in Draining Lymph Nodes Impair Adaptive Immunity and Control of West Nile Virus Infection

Justin M. Richner, Grzegorz B. Gmyrek, Jennifer Govero, Yizheng Tu, Gerritje J. W. van der Windt, Talibah U. Metcalf, Elias K. Haddad, Johannes Textor, Mark J. Miller, Michael S. Diamond

Virulence of Group A Streptococci Is Enhanced by Human Complement Inhibitors

David Ermert, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Thorsten Joeris, Jakub Kaplan, Catherine J. Pang, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Peter A. Rice, Sanjay Ram, Anna M. Blom

Analysis of the SUMO2 Proteome during HSV-1 Infection

Elizabeth Sloan, Michael H. Tatham, Marine Groslambert, Mandy Glass, Anne Orr, Ronald T. Hay, Roger D. Everett

Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract Is Modulated by Wall Teichoic Acid, Capsule, and Surface Proteins

Yoshiki Misawa, Kathryn A. Kelley, Xiaogang Wang, Linhui Wang, Wan Beom Park, Johannes Birtel, David Saslowsky, Jean C. Lee

Latent KSHV Infected Endothelial Cells Are Glutamine Addicted and Require Glutaminolysis for Survival

Erica L. Sanchez, Patrick A. Carroll, Angel B. Thalhofer, Michael Lagunoff

Vpr Promotes Macrophage-Dependent HIV-1 Infection of CD4+ T Lymphocytes

David R. Collins, Jay Lubow, Zana Lukic, Michael Mashiba, Kathleen L. Collins

Utilizing Chemical Genomics to Identify Cytochrome b as a Novel Drug Target for Chagas Disease

Shilpi Khare, Steven L. Roach, S. Whitney Barnes, Dominic Hoepfner, John R. Walker, Arnab K. Chatterjee, R. Jeffrey Neitz, Michelle R. Arkin, Case W. McNamara, Jaime Ballard, Yin Lai, Yue Fu, Valentina Molteni, Vince Yeh, James H. McKerrow, Richard J. Glynne, Frantisek Supek

Existing Infection Facilitates Establishment and Density of Malaria Parasites in Their Mosquito Vector

Laura C. Pollitt, Joshua T. Bram, Simon Blanford, Matthew J. Jones, Andrew F. Read

Mycolactone-Dependent Depletion of Endothelial Cell Thrombomodulin Is Strongly Associated with Fibrin Deposition in Buruli Ulcer Lesions

Joy Ogbechi, Marie-Thérèse Ruf, Belinda S. Hall, Katherine Bodman-Smith, Moritz Vogel, Hua-Lin Wu, Alexander Stainer, Charles T. Esmon, Josefin Ahnström, Gerd Pluschke, Rachel E. Simmonds

The Role of VP1 Amino Acid Residue 145 of Enterovirus 71 in Viral Fitness and Pathogenesis in a Cynomolgus Monkey Model

Chikako Kataoka, Tadaki Suzuki, Osamu Kotani, Naoko Iwata-Yoshikawa, Noriyo Nagata, Yasushi Ami, Takaji Wakita, Yorihiro Nishimura, Hiroyuki Shimizu

Vaccination Drives Changes in Metabolic and Virulence Profiles of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Eleanor R. Watkins, Bridget S. Penman, José Lourenço, Caroline O. Buckee, Martin C. J. Maiden, Sunetra Gupta

Decline of FoxP3+ Regulatory CD4 T Cells in Peripheral Blood of Children Heavily Exposed to Malaria

Michelle J. Boyle, Prasanna Jagannathan, Lila A. Farrington, Ijeoma Eccles-James, Samuel Wamala, Tara I McIntyre, Hilary M. Vance, Katherine Bowen, Felistas Nankya, Ann Auma, Mayimuna Nalubega, Esther Sikyomu, Kate Naluwu, John Rek, Agaba Katureebe, Victor Bigira, James Kapisi, Jordan Tappero, Mary K Muhindo, Bryan Greenhouse, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Grant Dorsey, Moses R. Kamya, Margaret E. Feeney

Macrophages Subvert Adaptive Immunity to Urinary Tract Infection

Gabriela Mora-Bau, Andrew M. Platt, Nico van Rooijen, Gwendalyn J. Randolph, Matthew L. Albert, Molly A. Ingersoll

Evaluating Human T-Cell Therapy of Cytomegalovirus Organ Disease in HLA-Transgenic Mice

Simone Thomas, Sebastian Klobuch, Jürgen Podlech, Bodo Plachter, Petra Hoffmann, Angelique Renzaho, Matthias Theobald, Matthias J. Reddehase, Wolfgang Herr, Niels A. W. Lemmermann

Lv4 Is a Capsid-Specific Antiviral Activity in Human Blood Cells That Restricts Viruses of the SIVMAC/SIVSM/HIV-2 Lineage Prior to Integration

Massimo Pizzato, Sean Matthew McCauley, Martha R. Neagu, Thomas Pertel, Claudia Firrito, Serena Ziglio, Ann Dauphin, Madeleine Zufferey, Lionel Berthoux, Jeremy Luban

Vpu Exploits the Cross-Talk between BST2 and the ILT7 Receptor to Suppress Anti-HIV-1 Responses by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells

Mariana G. Bego, Édouard Côté, Nick Aschman, Johanne Mercier, Winfried Weissenhorn, Éric A. Cohen

The Endosymbiotic Bacterium Wolbachia Selectively Kills Male Hosts by Targeting the Masculinizing Gene

Takahiro Fukui, Munetaka Kawamoto, Keisuke Shoji, Takashi Kiuchi, Sumio Sugano, Toru Shimada, Yutaka Suzuki, Susumu Katsuma

Characterization of a Prefusion-Specific Antibody That Recognizes a Quaternary, Cleavage-Dependent Epitope on the RSV Fusion Glycoprotein

Morgan S. A. Gilman, Syed M. Moin, Vicente Mas, Man Chen, Nita K. Patel, Kari Kramer, Qing Zhu, Stephanie C. Kabeche, Azad Kumar, Concepción Palomo, Tim Beaumont, Ulrich Baxa, Nancy D. Ulbrandt, José A. Melero, Barney S. Graham, Jason S. McLellan

Dimerization-Induced Allosteric Changes of the Oxyanion-Hole Loop Activate the Pseudorabies Virus Assemblin pUL26N, a Herpesvirus Serine Protease

Martin Zühlsdorf, Sebastiaan Werten, Barbara G. Klupp, Gottfried J. Palm, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, Winfried Hinrichs

Capacity of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies to Inhibit HIV-1 Cell-Cell Transmission Is Strain- and Epitope-Dependent

Lucia Reh, Carsten Magnus, Merle Schanz, Jacqueline Weber, Therese Uhr, Peter Rusert, Alexandra Trkola

The Broad Neutralizing Antibody Responses after HIV-1 Superinfection Are Not Dominated by Antibodies Directed to Epitopes Common in Single Infection

Valerie Cortez, Bingjie Wang, Adam Dingens, Mitchell M. Chen, Keshet Ronen, Ivelin S. Georgiev, R. Scott McClelland, Julie Overbaugh

MiR-21 in Extracellular Vesicles Leads to Neurotoxicity via TLR7 Signaling in SIV Neurological Disease

Sowmya V. Yelamanchili, Benjamin G. Lamberty, Deborah A. Rennard, Brenda M. Morsey, Colleen G. Hochfelder, Brittney M. Meays, Efrat Levy, Howard S. Fox

IFNγ and IL-12 Restrict Th2 Responses during Helminth/Plasmodium Co-Infection and Promote IFNγ from Th2 Cells

Stephanie M. Coomes, Victoria S. Pelly, Yashaswini Kannan, Isobel S. Okoye, Stephanie Czieso, Lewis J. Entwistle, Jimena Perez-Lloret, Nikolay Nikolov, Alexandre J. Potocnik, Judit Biró, Jean Langhorne, Mark S. Wilson

THY-1 Cell Surface Antigen (CD90) Has an Important Role in the Initial Stage of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection

Qingxue Li, Adrian R. Wilkie, Melodie Weller, Xueqiao Liu, Jeffrey I. Cohen

A Unique Human Norovirus Lineage with a Distinct HBGA Binding Interface

Wu Liu, Yutao Chen, Xi Jiang, Ming Xia, Yang Yang, Ming Tan, Xuemei Li, Zihe Rao

Calprotectin Increases the Activity of the SaeRS Two Component System and Murine Mortality during Staphylococcus aureus Infections

Hoonsik Cho, Do-Won Jeong, Qian Liu, Won-Sik Yeo, Thomas Vogl, Eric P. Skaar, Walter J. Chazin, Taeok Bae

Transmission Properties of Human PrP 102L Prions Challenge the Relevance of Mouse Models of GSS

Emmanuel A. Asante, Andrew Grimshaw, Michelle Smidak, Tatiana Jakubcova, Andrew Tomlinson, Asif Jeelani, Shyma Hamdan, Caroline Powell, Susan Joiner, Jacqueline M. Linehan, Sebastian Brandner, Jonathan D. F. Wadsworth, John Collinge

Intraperitoneal Infection of Wild-Type Mice with Synthetically Generated Mammalian Prion

Xinhe Wang, Gillian McGovern, Yi Zhang, Fei Wang, Liang Zha, Martin Jeffrey, Jiyan Ma

Suppression of Long-Lived Humoral Immunity Following Borrelia burgdorferi Infection

Rebecca A. Elsner, Christine J. Hastey, Kimberly J. Olsen, Nicole Baumgarth

HIV Reactivation from Latency after Treatment Interruption Occurs on Average Every 5-8 Days—Implications for HIV Remission

Mykola Pinkevych, Deborah Cromer, Martin Tolstrup, Andrew J. Grimm, David A. Cooper, Sharon R. Lewin, Ole S. Søgaard, Thomas A. Rasmussen, Stephen J. Kent, Anthony D. Kelleher, Miles P. Davenport

Expression of the Blood-Group-Related Gene B4galnt2 Alters Susceptibility to Salmonella Infection

Philipp Rausch, Natalie Steck, Abdulhadi Suwandi, Janice A. Seidel, Sven Künzel, Kirandeep Bhullar, Marijana Basic, Andre Bleich, Jill M. Johnsen, Bruce A. Vallance, John F. Baines, Guntram A. Grassl

Herpesvirus Genome Recognition Induced Acetylation of Nuclear IFI16 Is Essential for Its Cytoplasmic Translocation, Inflammasome and IFN-β Responses

Mairaj Ahmed Ansari, Sujoy Dutta, Mohanan Valiya Veettil, Dipanjan Dutta, Jawed Iqbal, Binod Kumar, Arunava Roy, Leela Chikoti, Vivek Vikram Singh, Bala Chandran

Type VI Secretion System Transports Zn2+ to Combat Multiple Stresses and Host Immunity

Tietao Wang, Meiru Si, Yunhong Song, Wenhan Zhu, Fen Gao, Yao Wang, Lei Zhang, Weipeng Zhang, Gehong Wei, Zhao-Qing Luo, Xihui Shen

α2-Macroglobulin Can Crosslink Multiple Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) Molecules and May Facilitate Adhesion of Parasitized Erythrocytes

Liz Stevenson, Erik Laursen, Graeme J. Cowan, Betty Bandoh, Lea Barfod, David R. Cavanagh, Gregers R. Andersen, Lars Hviid

CR3 and Dectin-1 Collaborate in Macrophage Cytokine Response through Association on Lipid Rafts and Activation of Syk-JNK-AP-1 Pathway

Juin-Hua Huang, Ching-Yu Lin, Sheng-Yang Wu, Wen-Yu Chen, Ching-Liang Chu, Gordon D. Brown, Chih-Pin Chuu, Betty A. Wu-Hsieh

Should Symbionts Be Nice or Selfish? Antiviral Effects of Wolbachia Are Costly but Reproductive Parasitism Is Not

Julien Martinez, Suzan Ok, Sophie Smith, Kiana Snoeck, Jon P. Day, Francis M. Jiggins

Research Matters