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Table of Contents: December 2011

COVER

The novel norovirus virulence factor VF1 localizes to mitochondria.

Image Credit: Guia Carrara and Ian Goodfellow, Imperial College London
Issue Image

Murine norovirus expresses a novel protein from an alternative reading frame on the viral subgenomic RNA, which plays a role in the regulation of the innate immune response and apoptosis. VF1 is important for efficient infection of its natural host as viruses lacking VF1 are attenuated in mice (see McFadden et al., doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002413). The localization of VF1 to the mitochondria is shown by confocal microscopy. The expression of VF1 N-terminally fused with GFP (green) in transfected Cos7 cells co-localizes with the mitochondrial Mitotracker stain (red), while the nucleus is shown in blue using DAPI staining.

Opinions

Nutritional Immunology: A Multi-Dimensional Approach

Fleur Ponton, Kenneth Wilson, Sheena C. Cotter, David Raubenheimer, Stephen J. Simpson

Pearls

Review

The Meaning of Death: Evolution and Ecology of Apoptosis in Protozoan Parasites

Sarah E. Reece, Laura C. Pollitt, Nick Colegrave, Andy Gardner

Research Articles

Eurasian-Origin Gene Segments Contribute to the Transmissibility, Aerosol Release, and Morphology of the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus

Seema S. Lakdawala, Elaine W. Lamirande, Amorsolo L. Suguitan Jr., Weijia Wang, Celia P. Santos, Leatrice Vogel, Yumiko Matsuoka, William G. Lindsley, Hong Jin, Kanta Subbarao

A Novel Human Cytomegalovirus Locus Modulates Cell Type-Specific Outcomes of Infection

Mahadevaiah Umashankar, Alex Petrucelli, Louis Cicchini, Patrizia Caposio, Craig N. Kreklywich, Michael Rak, Farah Bughio, Devorah C. Goldman, Kimberly L. Hamlin, Jay A. Nelson, William H. Fleming, Daniel N. Streblow, Felicia Goodrum

Eight RGS and RGS-like Proteins Orchestrate Growth, Differentiation, and Pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae

Haifeng Zhang, Wei Tang, Kaiyue Liu, Qian Huang, Xin Zhang, Xia Yan, Yue Chen, Jiansheng Wang, Zhongqiang Qi, Zhengyi Wang, Xiaobo Zheng, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang

Inflammasome-dependent Pyroptosis and IL-18 Protect against Burkholderia pseudomallei Lung Infection while IL-1β Is Deleterious

Ivonne Ceballos-Olvera, Manoranjan Sahoo, Mark A. Miller, Laura del Barrio, Fabio Re

Inflammatory Monocytes and Neutrophils Are Licensed to Kill during Memory Responses In Vivo

Emilie Narni-Mancinelli, Saidi M'Homa Soudja, Karine Crozat, Marc Dalod, Pierre Gounon, Frédéric Geissmann, Grégoire Lauvau

Allelic Variation on Murine Chromosome 11 Modifies Host Inflammatory Responses and Resistance to Bacillus anthracis

Jill K. Terra, Bryan France, Christopher K. Cote, Amy Jenkins, Joel A. Bozue, Susan L. Welkos, Ragini Bhargava, Chi-Lee Ho, Margarete Mehrabian, Calvin Pan, Aldons J. Lusis, Richard C. Davis, Steven M. LeVine, Kenneth A. Bradley

Identification and Characterization of a Novel Non-Structural Protein of Bluetongue Virus

Maxime Ratinier, Marco Caporale, Matthew Golder, Giulia Franzoni, Kathryn Allan, Sandro Filipe Nunes, Alessia Armezzani, Amr Bayoumy, Frazer Rixon, Andrew Shaw, Massimo Palmarini

Prion Uptake in the Gut: Identification of the First Uptake and Replication Sites

Pekka Kujala, Claudine R. Raymond, Martijn Romeijn, Susan F. Godsave, Sander I. van Kasteren, Holger Wille, Stanley B. Prusiner, Neil A. Mabbott, Peter J. Peters

Helicobacter pylori versus the Host: Remodeling of the Bacterial Outer Membrane Is Required for Survival in the Gastric Mucosa

Thomas W. Cullen, David K. Giles, Lindsey N. Wolf, Chantal Ecobichon, Ivo G. Boneca, M. Stephen Trent

Epstein-Barr Virus Evades CD4+ T Cell Responses in Lytic Cycle through BZLF1-mediated Downregulation of CD74 and the Cooperation of vBcl-2

Jianmin Zuo, Wendy A. Thomas, Tracey A. Haigh, Leah Fitzsimmons, Heather M. Long, Andrew D. Hislop, Graham S. Taylor, Martin Rowe

Engineered Anopheles Immunity to Plasmodium Infection

Yuemei Dong, Suchismita Das, Chris Cirimotich, Jayme A. Souza-Neto, Kyle J. McLean, George Dimopoulos

Functional Analysis of the Kinome of the Wheat Scab Fungus Fusarium graminearum

Chenfang Wang, Shijie Zhang, Rui Hou, Zhongtao Zhao, Qian Zheng, Qijun Xu, Dawei Zheng, Guanghui Wang, Huiquan Liu, Xuli Gao, Ji-Wen Ma, H. Corby Kistler, Zhensheng Kang, Jin-Rong Xu

Cryo Electron Tomography of Herpes Simplex Virus during Axonal Transport and Secondary Envelopment in Primary Neurons

Iosune Ibiricu, Juha T. Huiskonen, Katinka Döhner, Frank Bradke, Beate Sodeik, Kay Grünewald

Pathogenesis and Host Response in Syrian Hamsters following Intranasal Infection with Andes Virus

David Safronetz, Marko Zivcec, Rachel LaCasse, Friederike Feldmann, Rebecca Rosenke, Dan Long, Elaine Haddock, Douglas Brining, Donald Gardner, Heinz Feldmann, Hideki Ebihara

Structural Elucidation and Functional Characterization of the Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Effector Protein ATR13

Lauriebeth Leonelli, Jeffery Pelton, Allyn Schoeffler, Douglas Dahlbeck, James Berger, David E. Wemmer, Brian Staskawicz

Inhibition of Apoptosis and NF-κB Activation by Vaccinia Protein N1 Occur via Distinct Binding Surfaces and Make Different Contributions to Virulence

Carlos Maluquer de Motes, Samantha Cooray, Hongwei Ren, Gabriel M. F. Almeida, Kieran McGourty, Mohammad W. Bahar, David I. Stuart, Jonathan M. Grimes, Stephen C. Graham, Geoffrey L. Smith

Fungal Virulence and Development Is Regulated by Alternative Pre-mRNA 3′End Processing in Magnaporthe oryzae

Marina Franceschetti, Emilio Bueno, Richard A. Wilson, Sara L. Tucker, Concepción Gómez-Mena, Grant Calder, Ane Sesma

Nef Decreases HIV-1 Sensitivity to Neutralizing Antibodies that Target the Membrane-proximal External Region of TMgp41

Rachel P.J. Lai, Jin Yan, Jonathan Heeney, Myra O. McClure, Heinrich Göttlinger, Jeremy Luban, Massimo Pizzato

Granzyme B Inhibits Vaccinia Virus Production through Proteolytic Cleavage of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4 Gamma 3

Marcelo Marcet-Palacios, Brenda Lee Duggan, Irene Shostak, Michele Barry, Tracy Geskes, John A. Wilkins, Akiko Yanagiya, Nahum Sonenberg, R. Chris Bleackley

Juxtamembrane Shedding of Plasmodium falciparum AMA1 Is Sequence Independent and Essential, and Helps Evade Invasion-Inhibitory Antibodies

Anna Olivieri, Christine R. Collins, Fiona Hackett, Chrislaine Withers-Martinez, Joshua Marshall, Helen R. Flynn, J. Mark Skehel, Michael J. Blackman

Quantitative Multicolor Super-Resolution Microscopy Reveals Tetherin HIV-1 Interaction

Martin Lehmann, Susana Rocha, Bastien Mangeat, Fabien Blanchet, Hiroshi Uji-i, Johan Hofkens, Vincent Piguet

A Receptor-based Switch that Regulates Anthrax Toxin Pore Formation

Rosemarie M. Pilpa, Monika Bayrhuber, John M. Marlett, Roland Riek, John A. T. Young

A Novel Role for the NLRC4 Inflammasome in Mucosal Defenses against the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans

Jeffrey Tomalka, Sandhya Ganesan, Elaheh Azodi, Krupen Patel, Parth Majmudar, Brian A. Hall, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Amy G. Hise

Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus microRNAs Target Caspase 3 and Regulate Apoptosis

Guillaume Suffert, Georg Malterer, Jean Hausser, Johanna Viiliäinen, Aurélie Fender, Maud Contrant, Tomi Ivacevic, Vladimir Benes, Frédéric Gros, Olivier Voinnet, Mihaela Zavolan, Päivi M. Ojala, Juergen G. Haas, Sébastien Pfeffer

A Host Small GTP-binding Protein ARL8 Plays Crucial Roles in Tobamovirus RNA Replication

Masaki Nishikiori, Masashi Mori, Koji Dohi, Hideyasu Okamura, Etsuko Katoh, Satoshi Naito, Tetsuo Meshi, Masayuki Ishikawa

Deficiency of a Niemann-Pick, Type C1-related Protein in Toxoplasma Is Associated with Multiple Lipidoses and Increased Pathogenicity

Bao Lige, Julia D. Romano, Veera Venkata Ratnam Bandaru, Karen Ehrenman, Jelena Levitskaya, Vera Sampels, Norman J. Haughey, Isabelle Coppens

Toward an Integrated Model of Capsule Regulation in Cryptococcus neoformans

Brian C. Haynes, Michael L. Skowyra, Sarah J. Spencer, Stacey R. Gish, Matthew Williams, Elizabeth P. Held, Michael R. Brent, Tamara L. Doering

Norovirus Regulation of the Innate Immune Response and Apoptosis Occurs via the Product of the Alternative Open Reading Frame 4

Nora McFadden, Dalan Bailey, Guia Carrara, Alicia Benson, Yasmin Chaudhry, Amita Shortland, Jonathan Heeney, Felix Yarovinsky, Peter Simmonds, Andrew Macdonald, Ian Goodfellow

Wolbachia Symbiont Infections Induce Strong Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in the Tsetse Fly Glossina morsitans

Uzma Alam, Jan Medlock, Corey Brelsfoard, Roshan Pais, Claudia Lohs, Séverine Balmand, Jozef Carnogursky, Abdelaziz Heddi, Peter Takac, Alison Galvani, Serap Aksoy

Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3C Stabilizes Gemin3 to Block p53-mediated Apoptosis

Qiliang Cai, Yi Guo, Bingyi Xiao, Shuvomoy Banerjee, Abhik Saha, Jie Lu, Tina Glisovic, Erle S. Robertson

IRGM Is a Common Target of RNA Viruses that Subvert the Autophagy Network

Isabel Pombo Grégoire, Clémence Richetta, Laurène Meyniel-Schicklin, Sophie Borel, Fabrine Pradezynski, Olivier Diaz, Alexandre Deloire, Olga Azocar, Joël Baguet, Marc Le Breton, Philippe E. Mangeot, Vincent Navratil, Pierre-Emmanuel Joubert, Monique Flacher, Pierre-Olivier Vidalain, Patrice André, Vincent Lotteau, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk, Chantal Rabourdin-Combe, Mathias Faure

Multifaceted Regulation of Translational Readthrough by RNA Replication Elements in a Tombusvirus

Peter A. Cimino, Beth L. Nicholson, Baodong Wu, Wei Xu, K. Andrew White

SAMHD1-Deficient CD14+ Cells from Individuals with Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome Are Highly Susceptible to HIV-1 Infection

André Berger, Andreas F. R. Sommer, Jenny Zwarg, Matthias Hamdorf, Karin Welzel, Nicole Esly, Sylvia Panitz, Andreas Reuter, Irene Ramos, Asavari Jatiani, Lubbertus C. F. Mulder, Ana Fernandez-Sesma, Frank Rutsch, Viviana Simon, Renate König, Egbert Flory

The Human Cytomegalovirus UL11 Protein Interacts with the Receptor Tyrosine Phosphatase CD45, Resulting in Functional Paralysis of T Cells

Ildar Gabaev, Lars Steinbrück, Claudia Pokoyski, Andreas Pich, Richard J. Stanton, Reinhard Schwinzer, Thomas F. Schulz, Roland Jacobs, Martin Messerle, Penelope C. Kay-Fedorov

SARS Coronavirus nsp1 Protein Induces Template-Dependent Endonucleolytic Cleavage of mRNAs: Viral mRNAs Are Resistant to nsp1-Induced RNA Cleavage

Cheng Huang, Kumari G. Lokugamage, Janet M. Rozovics, Krishna Narayanan, Bert L. Semler, Shinji Makino

Targeting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Heparin-Binding Hemagglutinin to Mitochondria in Macrophages

Hosung Sohn, Jong-Seok Kim, Sung Jae Shin, Kwangwook Kim, Choul-Jae Won, Woo Sik Kim, Ki-Nam Min, Han-Gyu Choi, Je Chul Lee, Jeong-Kyu Park, Hwa-Jung Kim

HIV-1 Capsid-Cyclophilin Interactions Determine Nuclear Import Pathway, Integration Targeting and Replication Efficiency

Torsten Schaller, Karen E. Ocwieja, Jane Rasaiyaah, Amanda J. Price, Troy L. Brady, Shoshannah L. Roth, Stéphane Hué, Adam J. Fletcher, KyeongEun Lee, Vineet N. KewalRamani, Mahdad Noursadeghi, Richard G. Jenner, Leo C. James, Frederic D. Bushman, Greg J. Towers

Feeding Cells Induced by Phytoparasitic Nematodes Require γ-Tubulin Ring Complex for Microtubule Reorganization

Mohamed Youssef Banora, Natalia Rodiuc, Fabien Baldacci-Cresp, Andrei Smertenko, Teresa Bleve-Zacheo, Maria Teresa Mellilo, Mansour Karimi, Pierre Hilson, Jean-Luc Evrard, Bruno Favery, Gilbert Engler, Pierre Abad, Janice de Almeida Engler

Neonatal CD8 T-cell Hierarchy Is Distinct from Adults and Is Influenced by Intrinsic T cell Properties in Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infected Mice

Tracy J. Ruckwardt, Allison M. W. Malloy, Emma Gostick, David A. Price, Pradyot Dash, Jennifer L. McClaren, Paul G. Thomas, Barney S. Graham

Two Novel Transcriptional Regulators Are Essential for Infection-related Morphogenesis and Pathogenicity of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

Xia Yan, Ya Li, Xiaofeng Yue, Congcong Wang, Yawei Que, Dandan Kong, Zhonghua Ma, Nicholas J. Talbot, Zhengyi Wang

Longevity and Composition of Cellular Immune Responses Following Experimental Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Infection in Humans

Anne C. Teirlinck, Matthew B. B. McCall, Meta Roestenberg, Anja Scholzen, Rob Woestenenk, Quirijn de Mast, Andre J. A. M. van der Ven, Cornelus C. Hermsen, Adrian J. F. Luty, Robert W. Sauerwein

Chikungunya Virus Neutralization Antigens and Direct Cell-to-Cell Transmission Are Revealed by Human Antibody-Escape Mutants

Chia Yin Lee, Yiu-Wing Kam, Jan Fric, Benoit Malleret, Esther G. L. Koh, Celine Prakash, Wen Huang, Wendy W. L. Lee, Cui Lin, Raymond T. P. Lin, Laurent Renia, Cheng-I Wang, Lisa F. P. Ng, Lucile Warter

A Systematic Screen to Discover and Analyze Apicoplast Proteins Identifies a Conserved and Essential Protein Import Factor

Lilach Sheiner, Jessica L. Demerly, Nicole Poulsen, Wandy L. Beatty, Olivier Lucas, Michael S. Behnke, Michael W. White, Boris Striepen

Acquisition of Pneumococci Specific Effector and Regulatory Cd4+ T Cells Localising within Human Upper Respiratory-Tract Mucosal Lymphoid Tissue

Jeffrey Pido-Lopez, William W. Kwok, Timothy J. Mitchell, Robert S. Heyderman, Neil A. Williams

Acid Stability of the Hemagglutinin Protein Regulates H5N1 Influenza Virus Pathogenicity

Rebecca M. DuBois, Hassan Zaraket, Muralidhar Reddivari, Richard J. Heath, Stephen W. White, Charles J. Russell

Follicular Dendritic Cell-Specific Prion Protein (PrPc) Expression Alone Is Sufficient to Sustain Prion Infection in the Spleen

Laura McCulloch, Karen L. Brown, Barry M. Bradford, John Hopkins, Mick Bailey, Klaus Rajewsky, Jean C. Manson, Neil A. Mabbott

A Temporal Role Of Type I Interferon Signaling in CD8+ T Cell Maturation during Acute West Nile Virus Infection

Amelia K. Pinto, Stephane Daffis, James D. Brien, Maria D. Gainey, Wayne M. Yokoyama, Kathleen C. F. Sheehan, Kenneth M. Murphy, Robert D. Schreiber, Michael S. Diamond

Genesis of Mammalian Prions: From Non-infectious Amyloid Fibrils to a Transmissible Prion Disease

Natallia Makarava, Gabor G. Kovacs, Regina Savtchenko, Irina Alexeeva, Herbert Budka, Robert G. Rohwer, Ilia V. Baskakov