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Table of Contents: July 2013

COVER

EM image of patient-derived exosomes

Image Credit: Pauline E. Chugh, Sezgin Ozgur and Dirk P. Dittmer, UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center
Issue Image

Gene ontology analysis of signature exosomal miRNA targets revealed several signaling pathways that are known to be important in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) pathogenesis. Functional analysis of endothelial cells exposed to patient-derived exosomes demonstrated enhanced cell migration and IL-6 secretion. This suggests that exosomes derived from KSHV-associated malignancies are functional and contain a distinct subset of miRNAs. See Chugh et al.

Opinion

Pearls

Signalling C-Type Lectins in Antimicrobial Immunity

Rebecca A. Drummond, Gordon D. Brown

Babesia: An Emerging Infectious Threat in Transfusion Medicine

Cheryl A. Lobo, Jeny R. Cursino-Santos, Andy Alhassan, Marilis Rodrigues

Review

Tripping on Acid: Trans-Kingdom Perspectives on Biological Acids in Immunity and Pathogenesis

Michael F. Criscitiello, Martin B. Dickman, James E. Samuel, Paul de Figueiredo

Research Articles

A Multi-targeted Drug Candidate with Dual Anti-HIV and Anti-HSV Activity

Jan Balzarini, Graciela Andrei, Emanuela Balestra, Dana Huskens, Christophe Vanpouille, Andrea Introini, Sonia Zicari, Sandra Liekens, Robert Snoeck, Antonín Holý, Carlo-Federico Perno, Leonid Margolis, Dominique Schols

The Viral Chemokine MCK-2 of Murine Cytomegalovirus Promotes Infection as Part of a gH/gL/MCK-2 Complex

Felicia M. Wagner, Ilija Brizic, Adrian Prager, Tihana Trsan, Maja Arapovic, Niels A. W. Lemmermann, Jürgen Podlech, Matthias J. Reddehase, Frederic Lemnitzer, Jens Bernhard Bosse, Martina Gimpfl, Lisa Marcinowski, Margaret MacDonald, Heiko Adler, Ulrich H. Koszinowski, Barbara Adler

Genomic Analysis of the Kiwifruit Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Provides Insight into the Origins of an Emergent Plant Disease

Honour C. McCann, Erik H. A. Rikkerink, Frederic Bertels, Mark Fiers, Ashley Lu, Jonathan Rees-George, Mark T. Andersen, Andrew P. Gleave, Bernhard Haubold, Mark W. Wohlers, David S. Guttman, Pauline W. Wang, Christina Straub, Joel Vanneste, Paul B. Rainey, Matthew D. Templeton

A Product of Heme Catabolism Modulates Bacterial Function and Survival

Christopher L. Nobles, Sabrina I. Green, Anthony W. Maresso

Structural Basis for Native Agonist and Synthetic Inhibitor Recognition by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum Sensing Regulator PqsR (MvfR)

Aravindan Ilangovan, Matthew Fletcher, Giordano Rampioni, Christian Pustelny, Kendra Rumbaugh, Stephan Heeb, Miguel Cámara, Alex Truman, Siri Ram Chhabra, Jonas Emsley, Paul Williams

In Vivo Adaptation and Persistence of Neisseria meningitidis within the Nasopharyngeal Mucosa

Kay O. Johswich, Shannon E. McCaw, Epshita Islam, Anna Sintsova, Angel Gu, John E. Shively, Scott D. Gray-Owen

Enterovirus 71 Binding to PSGL-1 on Leukocytes: VP1-145 Acts as a Molecular Switch to Control Receptor Interaction

Yorihiro Nishimura, Hyunwook Lee, Susan Hafenstein, Chikako Kataoka, Takaji Wakita, Jeffrey M. Bergelson, Hiroyuki Shimizu

Association Study of Common Genetic Variants and HIV-1 Acquisition in 6,300 Infected Cases and 7,200 Controls

Paul J. McLaren, Cédric Coulonges, Stephan Ripke, Leonard van den Berg, Susan Buchbinder, Mary Carrington, Andrea Cossarizza, Judith Dalmau, Steven G. Deeks, Olivier Delaneau, Andrea De Luca, James J. Goedert, David Haas, Joshua T. Herbeck, Sekar Kathiresan, Gregory D. Kirk, Olivier Lambotte, Ma Luo, Simon Mallal, Daniëlle van Manen, Javier Martinez-Picado, Laurence Meyer, José M. Miro, James I. Mullins, Niels Obel, Stephen J. O'Brien, Florencia Pereyra, Francis A. Plummer, Guido Poli, Ying Qi, Pierre Rucart, Manj S. Sandhu, Patrick R. Shea, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Ioannis Theodorou, Fredrik Vannberg, Jan Veldink, Bruce D. Walker, Amy Weintrob, Cheryl A. Winkler, Steven Wolinsky, Amalio Telenti, David B. Goldstein, Paul I. W. de Bakker, Jean-François Zagury, Jacques Fellay

The Salmonella Type III Effector SspH2 Specifically Exploits the NLR Co-chaperone Activity of SGT1 to Subvert Immunity

Amit P. Bhavsar, Nat F. Brown, Jan Stoepel, Marcel Wiermer, Dale D. O. Martin, Karolynn J. Hsu, Koshi Imami, Colin J. Ross, Michael R. Hayden, Leonard J. Foster, Xin Li, Phil Hieter, B. Brett Finlay

Blocking TLR7- and TLR9-mediated IFN-α Production by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Does Not Diminish Immune Activation in Early SIV Infection

Muhamuda Kader, Amanda P. Smith, Cristiana Guiducci, Elizabeth R. Wonderlich, Daniel Normolle, Simon C. Watkins, Franck J. Barrat, Simon M. Barratt-Boyes

Endothelial Cell Permeability during Hantavirus Infection Involves Factor XII-Dependent Increased Activation of the Kallikrein-Kinin System

Shannon L. Taylor, Victoria Wahl-Jensen, Anna Maria Copeland, Peter B. Jahrling, Connie S. Schmaljohn

Mechanism of HIV-1 Virion Entrapment by Tetherin

Siddarth Venkatesh, Paul D. Bieniasz

Systemically Circulating Viral and Tumor-Derived MicroRNAs in KSHV-Associated Malignancies

Pauline E. Chugh, Sang-Hoon Sin, Sezgin Ozgur, David H. Henry, Prema Menezes, Jack Griffith, Joseph J. Eron, Blossom Damania, Dirk P. Dittmer

Evolutionary Toggling of Vpx/Vpr Specificity Results in Divergent Recognition of the Restriction Factor SAMHD1

Oliver I. Fregoso, Jinwoo Ahn, Chuanping Wang, Jennifer Mehrens, Jacek Skowronski, Michael Emerman

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase Inactivates Small GTPases Leading to Evasion of Innate Immunity

Jim Sun, Vijender Singh, Alice Lau, Richard W. Stokes, Andrés Obregón-Henao, Ian M. Orme, Dennis Wong, Yossef Av-Gay, Zakaria Hmama

The Footprint of Genome Architecture in the Largest Genome Expansion in RNA Viruses

Chris Lauber, Jelle J. Goeman, Maria del Carmen Parquet, Phan Thi Nga, Eric J. Snijder, Kouichi Morita, Alexander E. Gorbalenya

Cytotoxic T Cells Mediate Pathology and Metastasis in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Fernanda O. Novais, Lucas P. Carvalho, Joel W. Graff, Daniel P. Beiting, Gordon Ruthel, David S. Roos, Michael R. Betts, Michael H. Goldschmidt, Mary E. Wilson, Camila I. de Oliveira, Phillip Scott

EphrinA2 Regulates Clathrin Mediated KSHV Endocytosis in Fibroblast Cells by Coordinating Integrin-Associated Signaling and c-Cbl Directed Polyubiquitination

Dipanjan Dutta, Sayan Chakraborty, Chirosree Bandyopadhyay, Mohanan Valiya Veettil, Mairaj Ahmed Ansari, Vivek Vikram Singh, Bala Chandran

Targeting Iron Acquisition Blocks Infection with the Fungal Pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporum

Sixto M. Leal Jr, Sanhita Roy, Chairut Vareechon, Steven deJesus Carrion, Heather Clark, Manuel S. Lopez-Berges, Antonio diPietro, Marcus Schrettl, Nicola Beckmann, Bernhard Redl, Hubertus Haas, Eric Pearlman

Interplay between Siderophores and Colibactin Genotoxin Biosynthetic Pathways in Escherichia coli

Patricia Martin, Ingrid Marcq, Giuseppe Magistro, Marie Penary, Christophe Garcie, Delphine Payros, Michèle Boury, Maïwenn Olier, Jean-Philippe Nougayrède, Marc Audebert, Christian Chalut, Sören Schubert, Eric Oswald

An Acidic Microenvironment Increases NK Cell Killing of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii by Enhancing Perforin Degranulation

Anowara Islam, Shu Shun Li, Paul Oykhman, Martina Timm-McCann, Shaunna M. Huston, Danuta Stack, Richard F. Xiang, Margaret M. Kelly, Christopher H. Mody

The HCMV gH/gL/UL128-131 Complex Triggers the Specific Cellular Activation Required for Efficient Viral Internalization into Target Monocytes

Maciej T. Nogalski, Gary C. T. Chan, Emily V. Stevenson, Donna K. Collins-McMillen, Andrew D. Yurochko

Structure and Function of a Fungal Adhesin that Binds Heparin and Mimics Thrombospondin-1 by Blocking T Cell Activation and Effector Function

T. Tristan Brandhorst, René Roy, Marcel Wüthrich, Som Nanjappa, Hanna Filutowicz, Kevin Galles, Marco Tonelli, Darrell R. McCaslin, Kenneth Satyshur, Bruce Klein

B Cells Regulate Neutrophilia during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection and BCG Vaccination by Modulating the Interleukin-17 Response

Lee Kozakiewicz, Yong Chen, Jiayong Xu, Yanhua Wang, Kyri Dunussi-Joannopoulos, Qinglin Ou, Joanne L. Flynn, Steven A. Porcelli, William R. Jacobs Jr, John Chan

Reprogramming of Murine Macrophages through TLR2 Confers Viral Resistance via TRAF3-Mediated, Enhanced Interferon Production

Darren J. Perkins, Swamy K. Polumuri, Meghan E. Pennini, Wendy Lai, Ping Xie, Stefanie N. Vogel

Trichomonas vaginalis Exosomes Deliver Cargo to Host Cells and Mediate Host∶Parasite Interactions

Olivia Twu, Natalia de Miguel, Gila Lustig, Grant C. Stevens, Ajay A. Vashisht, James A. Wohlschlegel, Patricia J. Johnson

IL-22 and IDO1 Affect Immunity and Tolerance to Murine and Human Vaginal Candidiasis

Antonella De Luca, Agostinho Carvalho, Cristina Cunha, Rossana G. Iannitti, Lucia Pitzurra, Gloria Giovannini, Antonella Mencacci, Lorenzo Bartolommei, Silvia Moretti, Cristina Massi-Benedetti, Dietmar Fuchs, Flavia De Bernardis, Paolo Puccetti, Luigina Romani

CD40 Activation Rescues Antiviral CD8+ T Cells from PD-1-Mediated Exhaustion

Masanori Isogawa, Josan Chung, Yasuhiro Murata, Kazuhiro Kakimi, Francis V. Chisari

Irf8-Regulated Genomic Responses Drive Pathological Inflammation during Cerebral Malaria

Joanne Berghout, David Langlais, Irena Radovanovic, Mifong Tam, John D. MacMicking, Mary M. Stevenson, Philippe Gros

Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Replication by the Host Zinc Finger Antiviral Protein

Richeng Mao, Hui Nie, Dawei Cai, Jiming Zhang, Hongyan Liu, Ran Yan, Andrea Cuconati, Timothy M. Block, Ju-Tao Guo, Haitao Guo

Mutated and Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticle Arrayed F1-V Immunogens from Yersinia pestis as Next Generation Plague Vaccines

Pan Tao, Marthandan Mahalingam, Michelle L. Kirtley, Christina J. van Lier, Jian Sha, Linsey A. Yeager, Ashok K. Chopra, Venigalla B. Rao

Mosaic VSGs and the Scale of Trypanosoma brucei Antigenic Variation

James P. J. Hall, Huanhuan Wang, J. David Barry

DNA Methylation Impacts Gene Expression and Ensures Hypoxic Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Scarlet S. Shell, Erin G. Prestwich, Seung-Hun Baek, Rupal R. Shah, Christopher M. Sassetti, Peter C. Dedon, Sarah M. Fortune

Rapid Perturbation in Viremia Levels Drives Increases in Functional Avidity of HIV-specific CD8 T Cells

Selena Viganò, Felicitas Bellutti Enders, Isabelle Miconnet, Cristina Cellerai, Anne-Laure Savoye, Virginie Rozot, Matthieu Perreau, Mohamed Faouzi, Khalid Ohmiti, Matthias Cavassini, Pierre-Alexandre Bart, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Alexandre Harari

The Interactomes of Influenza Virus NS1 and NS2 Proteins Identify New Host Factors and Provide Insights for ADAR1 Playing a Supportive Role in Virus Replication

Benoît de Chassey, Anne Aublin-Gex, Alessia Ruggieri, Laurène Meyniel-Schicklin, Fabrine Pradezynski, Nathalie Davoust, Thibault Chantier, Lionel Tafforeau, Philippe-Emmanuel Mangeot, Claire Ciancia, Laure Perrin-Cocon, Ralf Bartenschlager, Patrice André, Vincent Lotteau

Critical and Independent Role for SOCS3 in Either Myeloid or T Cells in Resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Berit Carow, Ann-Kathrin Reuschl, Dolores Gavier-Widén, Brendan J. Jenkins, Matthias Ernst, Akihiko Yoshimura, Benedict J. Chambers, Martin E. Rottenberg

Ethnic Variation in Inflammatory Profile in Tuberculosis

Anna K. Coussens, Robert J. Wilkinson, Vladyslav Nikolayevskyy, Paul T. Elkington, Yasmeen Hanifa, Kamrul Islam, Peter M. Timms, Graham H. Bothamley, Alleyna P. Claxton, Geoffrey E. Packe, Mathina Darmalingam, Robert N. Davidson, Heather J. Milburn, Lucy V. Baker, Richard D. Barker, Francis A. Drobniewski, Charles A. Mein, Leena Bhaw-Rosun, Rosamond A. Nuamah, Christopher J. Griffiths, Adrian R. Martineau

A Key Role for the Urokinase Plasminogen Activator (uPA) in Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection

Martina L. Sanderson-Smith, Yueling Zhang, Diane Ly, Deborah Donahue, Andrew Hollands, Victor Nizet, Marie Ranson, Victoria A. Ploplis, Mark J. Walker, Francis J. Castellino

Maintenance of Intestinal Th17 Cells and Reduced Microbial Translocation in SIV-infected Rhesus Macaques Treated with Interleukin (IL)-21

Suresh Pallikkuth, Luca Micci, Zachary S. Ende, Robin I. Iriele, Barbara Cervasi, Benton Lawson, Colleen S. McGary, Kenneth A. Rogers, James G. Else, Guido Silvestri, Kirk Easley, Jacob D. Estes, Francois Villinger, Savita Pahwa, Mirko Paiardini

Evidence for a Continuous Drift of the HIV-1 Species towards Higher Resistance to Neutralizing Antibodies over the Course of the Epidemic

Mélanie Bouvin-Pley, Marion Morgand, Alain Moreau, Pauline Jestin, Claire Simonnet, Laurent Tran, Cécile Goujard, Laurence Meyer, Francis Barin, Martine Braibant