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Table of Contents: August 2013

COVER

Activity outside the host

Image Credit: Jacqueline Montanaro
Issue Image

An elementary body of the intracellular symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila, infecting its Acanthamoeba host, was captured by scanning electron microscopy. Sixt et al. report on the metabolism and the effect of nutrient availability on infectivity of this extracellular stage that has long been considered metabolically inert. See Sixt et al.

Opinion

Biosecurity Implications of New Technology and Discovery in Plant Virus Research

Robin MacDiarmid, Brendan Rodoni, Ulrich Melcher, Francisco Ochoa-Corona, Marilyn Roossinck

Pearls

Host Immune Response to Intestinal Amebiasis

Shannon N. Moonah, Nona M. Jiang, William A. Petri Jr

Relevance of Trehalose in Pathogenicity: Some General Rules, Yet Many Exceptions

Hélène Tournu, Alessandro Fiori, Patrick Van Dijck

Bed Bugs and Infectious Disease: A Case for the Arboviruses

Zach N. Adelman, Dini M. Miller, Kevin M. Myles

Human Genetic Susceptibility to Invasive Aspergillosis

Cristina Cunha, Franco Aversa, Luigina Romani, Agostinho Carvalho

Research Articles

Immunization against a Saccharide Epitope Accelerates Clearance of Experimental Gonococcal Infection

Sunita Gulati, Bo Zheng, George W. Reed, Xiaohong Su, Andrew D. Cox, Frank St. Michael, Jacek Stupak, Lisa A. Lewis, Sanjay Ram, Peter A. Rice

In Vivo Expression Technology Identifies a Novel Virulence Factor Critical for Borrelia burgdorferi Persistence in Mice

Tisha Choudhury Ellis, Sunny Jain, Angelika K. Linowski, Kelli Rike, Aaron Bestor, Patricia A. Rosa, Micah Halpern, Stephanie Kurhanewicz, Mollie W. Jewett

The sst1 Resistance Locus Regulates Evasion of Type I Interferon Signaling by Chlamydia pneumoniae as a Disease Tolerance Mechanism

Xianbao He, Robert Berland, Samrawit Mekasha, Thomas G. Christensen, Joseph Alroy, Igor Kramnik, Robin R. Ingalls

Influenza A Virus Migration and Persistence in North American Wild Birds

Justin Bahl, Scott Krauss, Denise Kühnert, Mathieu Fourment, Garnet Raven, S. Paul Pryor, Lawrence J. Niles, Angela Danner, David Walker, Ian H. Mendenhall, Yvonne C. F. Su, Vivien G. Dugan, Rebecca A. Halpin, Timothy B. Stockwell, Richard J. Webby, David E. Wentworth, Alexei J. Drummond, Gavin J. D. Smith, Robert G. Webster

Schistosoma mansoni Mucin Gene (SmPoMuc) Expression: Epigenetic Control to Shape Adaptation to a New Host

Cecile Perrin, Julie M. J. Lepesant, Emmanuel Roger, David Duval, Sara Fneich, Virginie Thuillier, Jean-Francois Alliene, Guillaume Mitta, Christoph Grunau, Celine Cosseau

Sexuality Generates Diversity in the Aflatoxin Gene Cluster: Evidence on a Global Scale

Geromy G. Moore, Jacalyn L. Elliott, Rakhi Singh, Bruce W. Horn, Joe W. Dorner, Eric A. Stone, Sofia N. Chulze, German G. Barros, Manjunath K. Naik, Graeme C. Wright, Kerstin Hell, Ignazio Carbone

Functional Specialization of the Small Interfering RNA Pathway in Response to Virus Infection

Joao Trindade Marques, Ji-Ping Wang, Xiaohong Wang, Karla Pollyanna Vieira de Oliveira, Catherine Gao, Eric Roberto Guimaraes Rocha Aguiar, Nadereh Jafari, Richard W. Carthew

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Novel Glutamate-Gated Chloride Channel Subunits from Schistosoma mansoni

Vanessa Dufour, Robin N. Beech, Claudia Wever, Joseph A. Dent, Timothy G. Geary

Signal Peptidase Complex Subunit 1 Participates in the Assembly of Hepatitis C Virus through an Interaction with E2 and NS2

Ryosuke Suzuki, Mami Matsuda, Koichi Watashi, Hideki Aizaki, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Takaji Wakita, Tetsuro Suzuki

CD36 Recruits α5β1 Integrin to Promote Cytoadherence of P. falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes

Shevaun P. Davis, Kristine Lee, Mark R. Gillrie, Lina Roa, Matthias Amrein, May Ho

HIV-1 Superinfection Occurs Less Frequently Than Initial Infection in a Cohort of High-Risk Kenyan Women

Keshet Ronen, Connor O. McCoy, Frederick A. Matsen, David F. Boyd, Sandra Emery, Katherine Odem-Davis, Walter Jaoko, Kishor Mandaliya, R. Scott McClelland, Barbra A. Richardson, Julie Overbaugh

Intact Type I Interferon Production and IRF7 Function in Sooty Mangabeys

Steven E. Bosinger, Zachary P. Johnson, Kathryn A. Folkner, Nirav Patel, Tayebeh Hashempour, Simon P. Jochems, Perla M. del Rio Estrada, Mirko Paiardini, Rongtuan Lin, Thomas H. Vanderford, John Hiscott, Guido Silvestri

Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus K-Rta Exhibits SUMO-Targeting Ubiquitin Ligase (STUbL) Like Activity and Is Essential for Viral Reactivation

Yoshihiro Izumiya, Keisuke Kobayashi, Kevin Y. Kim, Mamata Pochampalli, Chie Izumiya, Bogdan Shevchenko, Don-Hong Wang, Steve B. Huerta, Anthony Martinez, Mel Campbell, Hsing-Jien Kung

Nuclear Hormone Receptor Regulation of MicroRNAs Controls Innate Immune Responses in C. elegans

Feng Liu, Chen-Xi He, Li-Jun Luo, Quan-Li Zou, Yong-Xu Zhao, Ratni Saini, San-Feng Han, Hans-Joachim Knölker, Li-Shun Wang, Bao-Xue Ge

The Protein Kinase Double-Stranded RNA-Dependent (PKR) Enhances Protection against Disease Cause by a Non-Viral Pathogen

Pauline Sebby Ogolla, Jose-Andres C. Portillo, Christine L. White, Krupen Patel, Bruce Lamb, Ganes C. Sen, Carlos S. Subauste

The Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Minor Capsid Protein

Rachel M. Schowalter, Christopher B. Buck

Replication Vesicles are Load- and Choke-Points in the Hepatitis C Virus Lifecycle

Marco Binder, Nurgazy Sulaimanov, Diana Clausznitzer, Manuel Schulze, Christian M. Hüber, Simon M. Lenz, Johannes P. Schlöder, Martin Trippler, Ralf Bartenschlager, Volker Lohmann, Lars Kaderali

Crystal Structure of Vaccinia Viral A27 Protein Reveals a Novel Structure Critical for Its Function and Complex Formation with A26 Protein

Tao-Hsin Chang, Shu-Jung Chang, Fu-Lien Hsieh, Tzu-Ping Ko, Cheng-Tse Lin, Meng-Ru Ho, Iren Wang, Shang-Te Danny Hsu, Rey-Ting Guo, Wen Chang, Andrew H. J. Wang

Phosphorylation of Calcineurin at a Novel Serine-Proline Rich Region Orchestrates Hyphal Growth and Virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus

Praveen R. Juvvadi, Christopher Gehrke, Jarrod R. Fortwendel, Frédéric Lamoth, Erik J. Soderblom, Erik C. Cook, Michael A. Hast, Yohannes G. Asfaw, M. Arthur Moseley, Trevor P. Creamer, William J. Steinbach

Aspergillus Galactosaminogalactan Mediates Adherence to Host Constituents and Conceals Hyphal β-Glucan from the Immune System

Fabrice N. Gravelat, Anne Beauvais, Hong Liu, Mark J. Lee, Brendan D. Snarr, Dan Chen, Wenjie Xu, Ilia Kravtsov, Christopher M. Q. Hoareau, Ghyslaine Vanier, Mirjam Urb, Paolo Campoli, Qusai Al Abdallah, Melanie Lehoux, Josée C. Chabot, Marie-Claude Ouimet, Stefanie D. Baptista, Jörg H. Fritz, William C. Nierman, Jean Paul Latgé, Aaron P. Mitchell, Scott G. Filler, Thierry Fontaine, Donald C. Sheppard

TRIM5 alpha Drives SIVsmm Evolution in Rhesus Macaques

Fan Wu, Andrea Kirmaier, Robert Goeken, Ilnour Ourmanov, Laura Hall, Jennifer S. Morgan, Kenta Matsuda, Alicia Buckler-White, Keiko Tomioka, Ronald Plishka, Sonya Whitted, Welkin Johnson, Vanessa M. Hirsch

Secretion of Protective Antigens by Tissue-Stage Nematode Larvae Revealed by Proteomic Analysis and Vaccination-Induced Sterile Immunity

James P. Hewitson, Al C. Ivens, Yvonne Harcus, Kara J. Filbey, Henry J. McSorley, Janice Murray, Stephen Bridgett, David Ashford, Adam A. Dowle, Rick M. Maizels

Phosphoantigen/IL2 Expansion and Differentiation of Vγ2Vδ2 T Cells Increase Resistance to Tuberculosis in Nonhuman Primates

Crystal Y. Chen, Shuyu Yao, Dan Huang, Huiyong Wei, Helene Sicard, Gucheng Zeng, Hassan Jomaa, Michelle H. Larsen, William R. Jacobs Jr, Richard Wang, Norman Letvin, Yun Shen, Liyou Qiu, Ling Shen, Zheng W. Chen

The Smallest Capsid Protein Mediates Binding of the Essential Tegument Protein pp150 to Stabilize DNA-Containing Capsids in Human Cytomegalovirus

Xinghong Dai, Xuekui Yu, Hao Gong, Xiaohong Jiang, Gerrado Abenes, Hongrong Liu, Sakar Shivakoti, William J. Britt, Hua Zhu, Fenyong Liu, Z. Hong Zhou

The Role of Selection in Shaping Diversity of Natural M. tuberculosis Populations

Caitlin S. Pepperell, Amanda M. Casto, Andrew Kitchen, Julie M. Granka, Omar E. Cornejo, Eddie C. Holmes, Bruce Birren, James Galagan, Marcus W. Feldman

Local CD4 and CD8 T-Cell Reactivity to HSV-1 Antigens Documents Broad Viral Protein Expression and Immune Competence in Latently Infected Human Trigeminal Ganglia

Monique van Velzen, Lichen Jing, Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus, Alessandro Sette, David M. Koelle, Georges M. G. M. Verjans

Quantitative Models of the Dose-Response and Time Course of Inhalational Anthrax in Humans

Damon J. A. Toth, Adi V. Gundlapalli, Wiley A. Schell, Kenneth Bulmahn, Thomas E. Walton, Christopher W. Woods, Catherine Coghill, Frank Gallegos, Matthew H. Samore, Frederick R. Adler

A Compact Viral Processing Proteinase/Ubiquitin Hydrolase from the OTU Family

Charlotte Lombardi, Maya Ayach, Lionel Beaurepaire, Mélanie Chenon, Jessica Andreani, Raphaël Guerois, Isabelle Jupin, Stéphane Bressanelli

Francisella tularensis Harvests Nutrients Derived via ATG5-Independent Autophagy to Support Intracellular Growth

Shaun Steele, Jason Brunton, Benjamin Ziehr, Sharon Taft-Benz, Nathaniel Moorman, Thomas Kawula

The Viral KSHV Chemokine vMIP-II Inhibits the Migration of Naive and Activated Human NK Cells by Antagonizing Two Distinct Chemokine Receptors

Rachel Yamin, Noa S. Kaynan, Ariella Glasner, Alon Vitenshtein, Pinchas Tsukerman, Yoav Bauman, Yael Ophir, Shlomo Elias, Yotam Bar-On, Chamutal Gur, Ofer Mandelboim

A Systematic Analysis of Host Factors Reveals a Med23-Interferon-λ Regulatory Axis against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Replication

Samantha J. Griffiths, Manfred Koegl, Chris Boutell, Helen L. Zenner, Colin M. Crump, Francesca Pica, Orland Gonzalez, Caroline C. Friedel, Gerald Barry, Kim Martin, Marie H. Craigon, Rui Chen, Lakshmi N. Kaza, Even Fossum, John K. Fazakerley, Stacey Efstathiou, Antonio Volpi, Ralf Zimmer, Peter Ghazal, Jürgen Haas

acr-23 Encodes a Monepantel-Sensitive Channel in Caenorhabditis elegans

Lucien Rufener, Nicola Bedoni, Roland Baur, Samantha Rey, Dominique A. Glauser, Jacques Bouvier, Robin Beech, Erwin Sigel, Alessandro Puoti

The Extracellular Matrix Component Psl Provides Fast-Acting Antibiotic Defense in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

Nicole Billings, Maria Ramirez Millan, Marina Caldara, Roberto Rusconi, Yekaterina Tarasova, Roman Stocker, Katharina Ribbeck

Structure of the Parainfluenza Virus 5 (PIV5) Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase (HN) Ectodomain

Brett D. Welch, Ping Yuan, Sayantan Bose, Christopher A. Kors, Robert A. Lamb, Theodore S. Jardetzky

SIGIRR, a Negative Regulator of TLR/IL-1R Signalling Promotes Microbiota Dependent Resistance to Colonization by Enteric Bacterial Pathogens

Ho Pan Sham, Emily Yi Shan Yu, Muhammet F. Gulen, Ganive Bhinder, Martin Stahl, Justin M. Chan, Lara Brewster, Vijay Morampudi, Deanna L. Gibson, Michael R. Hughes, Kelly M. McNagny, Xiaoxia Li, Bruce A. Vallance

Cytomegalovirus Downregulates IRE1 to Repress the Unfolded Protein Response

Sebastian Stahl, Julia M. Burkhart, Florian Hinte, Boaz Tirosh, Hermine Mohr, René P. Zahedi, Albert Sickmann, Zsolt Ruzsics, Matthias Budt, Wolfram Brune

Identification of New PNEPs Indicates a Substantial Non-PEXEL Exportome and Underpins Common Features in Plasmodium falciparum Protein Export

Arlett Heiber, Florian Kruse, Christian Pick, Christof Grüring, Sven Flemming, Alexander Oberli, Hanno Schoeler, Silke Retzlaff, Paolo Mesén-Ramírez, Jan A. Hiss, Madhusudan Kadekoppala, Leonie Hecht, Anthony A. Holder, Tim-Wolf Gilberger, Tobias Spielmann

Metabolic Features of Protochlamydia amoebophila Elementary Bodies – A Link between Activity and Infectivity in Chlamydiae

Barbara S. Sixt, Alexander Siegl, Constanze Müller, Margarete Watzka, Anna Wultsch, Dimitrios Tziotis, Jacqueline Montanaro, Andreas Richter, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Matthias Horn

Brucella Modulates Secretory Trafficking via Multiple Type IV Secretion Effector Proteins

Sebenzile Myeni, Robert Child, Tony W. Ng, John J. Kupko III, Tara D. Wehrly, Stephen F. Porcella, Leigh A. Knodler, Jean Celli

Prion Replication Occurs in Endogenous Adult Neural Stem Cells and Alters Their Neuronal Fate: Involvement of Endogenous Neural Stem Cells in Prion Diseases

Aroa Relaño-Ginès, Audrey Gabelle, Claire Hamela, Maxime Belondrade, Danielle Casanova, Chantal Mourton-Gilles, Sylvain Lehmann, Carole Crozet

Discovery of Anthelmintic Drug Targets and Drugs Using Chokepoints in Nematode Metabolic Pathways

Christina M. Taylor, Qi Wang, Bruce A. Rosa, Stanley Ching-Cheng Huang, Kerrie Powell, Tim Schedl, Edward J. Pearce, Sahar Abubucker, Makedonka Mitreva

Three-Dimensional Normal Human Neural Progenitor Tissue-Like Assemblies: A Model of Persistent Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection

Thomas J. Goodwin, Maureen McCarthy, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Randall J. Cohrs, Benedikt B. Kaufer

Rab18 Binds to Hepatitis C Virus NS5A and Promotes Interaction between Sites of Viral Replication and Lipid Droplets

Shadi Salloum, Hongliang Wang, Charles Ferguson, Robert G. Parton, Andrew W. Tai

An Anti-Human ICAM-1 Antibody Inhibits Rhinovirus-Induced Exacerbations of Lung Inflammation

Stephanie Traub, Alexandra Nikonova, Alan Carruthers, Rebecca Dunmore, Katherine A. Vousden, Leila Gogsadze, Weidong Hao, Qing Zhu, Katie Bernard, Jie Zhu, Michael Dymond, Gary R. McLean, Ross P. Walton, Nicholas Glanville, Alison Humbles, Musa Khaitov, Ted Wells, Roland Kolbeck, Andrew J. Leishman, Matthew A. Sleeman, Nathan W. Bartlett, Sebastian L. Johnston

Rational Design of a Live Attenuated Dengue Vaccine: 2′-O-Methyltransferase Mutants Are Highly Attenuated and Immunogenic in Mice and Macaques

Roland Züst, Hongping Dong, Xiao-Feng Li, David C. Chang, Bo Zhang, Thavamalar Balakrishnan, Ying-Xiu Toh, Tao Jiang, Shi-Hua Li, Yong-Qiang Deng, Brett R. Ellis, Esther M. Ellis, Michael Poidinger, Francesca Zolezzi, Cheng-Feng Qin, Pei-Yong Shi, Katja Fink

Malaria Parasite-Synthesized Heme Is Essential in the Mosquito and Liver Stages and Complements Host Heme in the Blood Stages of Infection

Viswanathan Arun Nagaraj, Balamurugan Sundaram, Nandan Mysore Varadarajan, Pradeep Annamalai Subramani, Devaiah Monnanda Kalappa, Susanta Kumar Ghosh, Govindarajan Padmanaban

Clostridium difficile 027/BI/NAP1 Encodes a Hypertoxic and Antigenically Variable Form of TcdB

Jordi M. Lanis, Latisha D. Heinlen, Judith A. James, Jimmy D. Ballard

The Late Endosomal HOPS Complex Anchors Active G-Protein Signaling Essential for Pathogenesis in Magnaporthe oryzae

Ravikrishna Ramanujam, Meredith E. Calvert, Poonguzhali Selvaraj, Naweed I. Naqvi

Distinct Binding and Immunogenic Properties of the Gonococcal Homologue of Meningococcal Factor H Binding Protein

Ilse Jongerius, Hayley Lavender, Lionel Tan, Nicola Ruivo, Rachel M. Exley, Joseph J. E. Caesar, Susan M. Lea, Steven Johnson, Christoph M. Tang

A Novel Role for Pro-Coagulant Microvesicles in the Early Host Defense against Streptococcus pyogenes

Sonja Oehmcke, Johannes Westman, Johan Malmström, Matthias Mörgelin, Anders I. Olin, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Heiko Herwald

IL-1β Suppresses Innate IL-25 and IL-33 Production and Maintains Helminth Chronicity

Mario M. Zaiss, Kendle M. Maslowski, Ilaria Mosconi, Nadine Guenat, Benjamin J. Marsland, Nicola L. Harris

Post-Translational Control of IL-1β via the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 Oncoprotein: A Novel Mechanism of Innate Immune Escape Mediated by the E3-Ubiquitin Ligase E6-AP and p53

Martina Niebler, Xu Qian, Daniela Höfler, Vlada Kogosov, Jittranan Kaewprag, Andreas M. Kaufmann, Regina Ly, Gerd Böhmer, Rainer Zawatzky, Frank Rösl, Bladimiro Rincon-Orozco