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Table of Contents: February 2014

COVER

Clonal expansion of bacteria in model host organisms.

Image Credit: Gareth McVicker
Issue Image

An altered image of data taken from a murine infection study, in which three isogenic S. aureus strains harboring different antibiotic resistance markers were used to study the effect of clonal expansion of pathogenic bacteria in the host and the response to sub-curative levels of antibiotics. Results agreed strongly with similar experiments in the zebrafish embryo model, represented here by a "fish-scale" effect. See McVicker et al.

Opinion

Viral Enhancer Mimicry of Host Innate-Immune Promoters

Kai A. Kropp, Ana Angulo, Peter Ghazal

Pearls

Review

Tailored Immune Responses: Novel Effector Helper T Cell Subsets in Protective Immunity

Ervin E. Kara, Iain Comerford, Kevin A. Fenix, Cameron R. Bastow, Carly E. Gregor, Duncan R. McKenzie, Shaun R. McColl

Research Articles

Gem-Induced Cytoskeleton Remodeling Increases Cellular Migration of HTLV-1-Infected Cells, Formation of Infected-to-Target T-Cell Conjugates and Viral Transmission

Sébastien A. Chevalier, Jocelyn Turpin, Anne Cachat, Philippe V. Afonso, Antoine Gessain, John N. Brady, Cynthia A. Pise-Masison, Renaud Mahieux

The Secreted Triose Phosphate Isomerase of Brugia malayi Is Required to Sustain Microfilaria Production In Vivo

James P. Hewitson, Dominik Rückerl, Yvonne Harcus, Janice Murray, Lauren M. Webb, Simon A. Babayan, Judith E. Allen, Agnes Kurniawan, Rick M. Maizels

Metabolic Reprogramming during Purine Stress in the Protozoan Pathogen Leishmania donovani

Jessica L. Martin, Phillip A. Yates, Radika Soysa, Joshua F. Alfaro, Feng Yang, Kristin E. Burnum-Johnson, Vladislav A. Petyuk, Karl K. Weitz, David G. Camp II, Richard D. Smith, Phillip A. Wilmarth, Larry L. David, Gowthaman Ramasamy, Peter J. Myler, Nicola S. Carter

Clonal Expansion during Staphylococcus aureus Infection Dynamics Reveals the Effect of Antibiotic Intervention

Gareth McVicker, Tomasz K. Prajsnar, Alexander Williams, Nelly L. Wagner, Michael Boots, Stephen A. Renshaw, Simon J. Foster

MicroRNA Editing Facilitates Immune Elimination of HCMV Infected Cells

Daphna Nachmani, Albert Zimmermann, Esther Oiknine Djian, Yiska Weisblum, Yoav Livneh, Vu Thuy Khanh Le, Eithan Galun, Vaclav Horejsi, Ofer Isakov, Noam Shomron, Dana G. Wolf, Hartmut Hengel, Ofer Mandelboim

Code-Assisted Discovery of TAL Effector Targets in Bacterial Leaf Streak of Rice Reveals Contrast with Bacterial Blight and a Novel Susceptibility Gene

Raul A. Cernadas, Erin L. Doyle, David O. Niño-Liu, Katherine E. Wilkins, Timothy Bancroft, Li Wang, Clarice L. Schmidt, Rico Caldo, Bing Yang, Frank F. White, Dan Nettleton, Roger P. Wise, Adam J. Bogdanove

Structure of the Membrane Anchor of Pestivirus Glycoprotein Erns, a Long Tilted Amphipathic Helix

Daniel Aberle, Claudia Muhle-Goll, Jochen Bürck, Moritz Wolf, Sabine Reißer, Burkhard Luy, Wolfgang Wenzel, Anne S. Ulrich, Gregor Meyers

The Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded MicroRNA MiR-BART9 Promotes Tumor Metastasis by Targeting E-Cadherin in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Chung-Yuan Hsu, Yung-Hsiang Yi, Kai-Ping Chang, Yu-Sun Chang, Shu-Jen Chen, Hua-Chien Chen

Implication of PMLIV in Both Intrinsic and Innate Immunity

Faten El Asmi, Mohamed Ali Maroui, Jacques Dutrieux, Danielle Blondel, Sébastien Nisole, Mounira K. Chelbi-Alix

Human Genome-Wide RNAi Screen Identifies an Essential Role for Inositol Pyrophosphates in Type-I Interferon Response

Niyas Kudukkil Pulloor, Sajith Nair, Aleksandar D. Kostic, Pradeep Bist, Jeremy D. Weaver, Andrew M. Riley, Richa Tyagi, Pradeep D. Uchil, John D. York, Solomon H. Snyder, Adolfo García-Sastre, Barry V. L. Potter, Rongtuan Lin, Stephen B. Shears, Ramnik J. Xavier, Manoj N. Krishnan

A Compositional Look at the Human Gastrointestinal Microbiome and Immune Activation Parameters in HIV Infected Subjects

Ece A. Mutlu, Ali Keshavarzian, John Losurdo, Garth Swanson, Basile Siewe, Christopher Forsyth, Audrey French, Patricia DeMarais, Yan Sun, Lars Koenig, Stephen Cox, Phillip Engen, Prachi Chakradeo, Rawan Abbasi, Annika Gorenz, Charles Burns, Alan Landay

Interleukin-33 Increases Antibacterial Defense by Activation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Skin

Changwei Li, Hongquan Li, Ziwei Jiang, Tian Zhang, Yue Wang, Zhiheng Li, Yelin Wu, Shizhao Ji, Shichu Xiao, Bernhard Ryffel, Katherine A. Radek, Zhaofan Xia, Yuping Lai

Protective Vaccination against Papillomavirus-Induced Skin Tumors under Immunocompetent and Immunosuppressive Conditions: A Preclinical Study Using a Natural Outbred Animal Model

Sabrina E. Vinzón, Ilona Braspenning-Wesch, Martin Müller, Edward K. Geissler, Ingo Nindl, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Kai Schäfer, Frank Rösl

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Exploits Asparagine to Assimilate Nitrogen and Resist Acid Stress during Infection

Alexandre Gouzy, Gérald Larrouy-Maumus, Daria Bottai, Florence Levillain, Alexia Dumas, Joshua B. Wallach, Irène Caire-Brandli, Chantal de Chastellier, Ting-Di Wu, Renaud Poincloux, Roland Brosch, Jean-Luc Guerquin-Kern, Dirk Schnappinger, Luiz Pedro Sório de Carvalho, Yannick Poquet, Olivier Neyrolles

Unifying Viral Genetics and Human Transportation Data to Predict the Global Transmission Dynamics of Human Influenza H3N2

Philippe Lemey, Andrew Rambaut, Trevor Bedford, Nuno Faria, Filip Bielejec, Guy Baele, Colin A. Russell, Derek J. Smith, Oliver G. Pybus, Dirk Brockmann, Marc A. Suchard

Inflammatory Monocytes Orchestrate Innate Antifungal Immunity in the Lung

Vanessa Espinosa, Anupam Jhingran, Orchi Dutta, Shinji Kasahara, Robert Donnelly, Peicheng Du, Jeffrey Rosenfeld, Ingrid Leiner, Chiann-Chyi Chen, Yacov Ron, Tobias M. Hohl, Amariliz Rivera

‘Death and Axes’: Unexpected Ca2+ Entry Phenologs Predict New Anti-schistosomal Agents

John D. Chan, Prince N. Agbedanu, Mostafa Zamanian, Sarah M. Gruba, Christy L. Haynes, Timothy A. Day, Jonathan S. Marchant

Identification of Host-Targeted Small Molecules That Restrict Intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth

Sarah A. Stanley, Amy K. Barczak, Melanie R. Silvis, Samantha S. Luo, Kimberly Sogi, Martha Vokes, Mark-Anthony Bray, Anne E. Carpenter, Christopher B. Moore, Noman Siddiqi, Eric J. Rubin, Deborah T. Hung

Induction of Type I Interferon Signaling Determines the Relative Pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus Strains

Dane Parker, Paul J. Planet, Grace Soong, Apurva Narechania, Alice Prince

AvrBsT Acetylates Arabidopsis ACIP1, a Protein that Associates with Microtubules and Is Required for Immunity

Mi Sun Cheong, Angela Kirik, Jung-Gun Kim, Kenneth Frame, Viktor Kirik, Mary Beth Mudgett

Epstein-Barr Virus Large Tegument Protein BPLF1 Contributes to Innate Immune Evasion through Interference with Toll-Like Receptor Signaling

Michiel van Gent, Steven G. E. Braem, Annemieke de Jong, Nezira Delagic, Janneke G. C. Peeters, Ingrid G. J. Boer, Paul N. Moynagh, Elisabeth Kremmer, Emmanuel J. Wiertz, Huib Ovaa, Bryan D. Griffin, Maaike E. Ressing

Reversible Silencing of Cytomegalovirus Genomes by Type I Interferon Governs Virus Latency

Franziska Dağ, Lars Dölken, Julia Holzki, Anja Drabig, Adrien Weingärtner, Johannes Schwerk, Stefan Lienenklaus, Ianina Conte, Robert Geffers, Colin Davenport, Ulfert Rand, Mario Köster, Siegfried Weiß, Barbara Adler, Dagmar Wirth, Martin Messerle, Hansjörg Hauser, Luka Čičin-Šain

Domain Shuffling in a Sensor Protein Contributed to the Evolution of Insect Pathogenicity in Plant-Beneficial Pseudomonas protegens

Peter Kupferschmied, Maria Péchy-Tarr, Nicola Imperiali, Monika Maurhofer, Christoph Keel

Insights into the Initiation of JC Virus DNA Replication Derived from the Crystal Structure of the T-Antigen Origin Binding Domain

Gretchen Meinke, Paul J. Phelan, Radha Kalekar, Jong Shin, Jacques Archambault, Andrew Bohm, Peter A. Bullock

A Cyclophilin Homology Domain-Independent Role for Nup358 in HIV-1 Infection

Anne M. Meehan, Dyana T. Saenz, Rebekah Guevera, James H. Morrison, Mary Peretz, Hind J. Fadel, Masakazu Hamada, Jan van Deursen, Eric M. Poeschla

Competitive and Cooperative Interactions Mediate RNA Transfer from Herpesvirus Saimiri ORF57 to the Mammalian Export Adaptor ALYREF

Richard B. Tunnicliffe, Guillaume M. Hautbergue, Stuart A. Wilson, Priti Kalra, Alexander P. Golovanov

Genome-Wide RNAi Screen Identifies Broadly-Acting Host Factors That Inhibit Arbovirus Infection

Ari Yasunaga, Sheri L. Hanna, Jianqing Li, Hyelim Cho, Patrick P. Rose, Anna Spiridigliozzi, Beth Gold, Michael S. Diamond, Sara Cherry

Transmission-Blocking Antibodies against Mosquito C-Type Lectins for Dengue Prevention

Yang Liu, Fuchun Zhang, Jianying Liu, Xiaoping Xiao, Siyin Zhang, Chengfeng Qin, Ye Xiang, Penghua Wang, Gong Cheng

Iron Acquisition in Bacillus cereus: The Roles of IlsA and Bacillibactin in Exogenous Ferritin Iron Mobilization

Diego Segond, Elise Abi Khalil, Christophe Buisson, Nadine Daou, Mireille Kallassy, Didier Lereclus, Paolo Arosio, Fadi Bou-Abdallah, Christina Nielsen Le Roux

Lectin-Like Bacteriocins from Pseudomonas spp. Utilise D-Rhamnose Containing Lipopolysaccharide as a Cellular Receptor

Laura C. McCaughey, Rhys Grinter, Inokentijs Josts, Aleksander W. Roszak, Kai I. Waløen, Richard J. Cogdell, Joel Milner, Tom Evans, Sharon Kelly, Nicholas P. Tucker, Olwyn Byron, Brian Smith, Daniel Walker

The Master Regulator of the Cellular Stress Response (HSF1) Is Critical for Orthopoxvirus Infection

Claire Marie Filone, Ignacio S. Caballero, Ken Dower, Marc L. Mendillo, Glenn S. Cowley, Sandro Santagata, Daniel K. Rozelle, Judy Yen, Kathleen H. Rubins, Nir Hacohen, David E. Root, Lisa E. Hensley, John Connor

Inducible Deletion of CD28 Prior to Secondary Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Infection Impairs Worm Expulsion and Recall of Protective Memory CD4+ T Cell Responses

Hlumani Ndlovu, Mathew Darby, Monika Froelich, William Horsnell, Fred Lühder, Thomas Hünig, Frank Brombacher

The Major Cellular Sterol Regulatory Pathway Is Required for Andes Virus Infection

Josiah Petersen, Mary Jane Drake, Emily A. Bruce, Amber M. Riblett, Chukwuka A. Didigu, Craig B. Wilen, Nirav Malani, Frances Male, Fang-Hua Lee, Frederic D. Bushman, Sara Cherry, Robert W. Doms, Paul Bates, Kenneth Briley Jr.

Viral MicroRNA Effects on Pathogenesis of Polyomavirus SV40 Infections in Syrian Golden Hamsters

Shaojie Zhang, Vojtech Sroller, Preeti Zanwar, Chun Jung Chen, Steven J. Halvorson, Nadim J. Ajami, Corey W. Hecksel, Jody L. Swain, Connie Wong, Christopher S. Sullivan, Janet S. Butel

Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Delay Expulsion of Intestinal Nematodes by Suppression of IL-9-Driven Mast Cell Activation in BALB/c but Not in C57BL/6 Mice

Birte Blankenhaus, Martina Reitz, Yannick Brenz, Marie-Luise Eschbach, Wiebke Hartmann, Irma Haben, Tim Sparwasser, Jochen Huehn, Anja Kühl, Thorsten B. Feyerabend, Hans-Reimer Rodewald, Minka Breloer

A Gammaherpesvirus Bcl-2 Ortholog Blocks B Cell Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis and Promotes the Survival of Developing B Cells In Vivo

Carrie B. Coleman, Jennifer E. McGraw, Emily R. Feldman, Alexa N. Roth, Lisa R. Keyes, Katrina R. Grau, Stephanie L. Cochran, Thomas J. Waldschmidt, Chengyu Liang, J. Craig Forrest, Scott A. Tibbetts

Lundep, a Sand Fly Salivary Endonuclease Increases Leishmania Parasite Survival in Neutrophils and Inhibits XIIa Contact Activation in Human Plasma

Andrezza C. Chagas, Fabiano Oliveira, Alain Debrabant, Jesus G. Valenzuela, José M. C. Ribeiro, Eric Calvo

Substrate-Induced Unfolding of Protein Disulfide Isomerase Displaces the Cholera Toxin A1 Subunit from Its Holotoxin

Michael Taylor, Helen Burress, Tuhina Banerjee, Supriyo Ray, David Curtis, Suren A. Tatulian, Ken Teter

Shigella Type III Secretion Protein MxiI Is Recognized by Naip2 to Induce Nlrc4 Inflammasome Activation Independently of Pkcδ

Shiho Suzuki, Luigi Franchi, Yuan He, Raul Muñoz-Planillo, Hitomi Mimuro, Toshihiko Suzuki, Chihiro Sasakawa, Gabriel Núñez