Advertisement

Table of Contents: May 2009

COVER

The ciliated cells of an in vitro model of human airway epithelium.

Image Credit: Raymond J. Pickles, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Issue Image

The ciliated airway epithelium is the target for influenza virus infection in the human host. Ciliated cells in an in vitro model of human airway epithelium (HAE) are shown here, detected by immunostaining with anti-βIV tubulin primary and Texas red secondary antibodies and visualized using confocal microscopy. This in vitro model facilitates detailed characterization of human influenza virus infection of the epithelium and allows identification of host restriction factors that limit infection of HAE by avian influenza viruses (see Scull et al., doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000424).

Opinions

Review

Host Cell Factors in HIV Replication: Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Studies

Frederic D. Bushman, Nirav Malani, Jason Fernandes, Iván D'Orso, Gerard Cagney, Tracy L. Diamond, Honglin Zhou, Daria J. Hazuda, Amy S. Espeseth, Renate König, Sourav Bandyopadhyay, Trey Ideker, Stephen P. Goff, Nevan J. Krogan, Alan D. Frankel, John A. T. Young, Sumit K. Chanda

Research Articles

Structure-Based Stabilization of HIV-1 gp120 Enhances Humoral Immune Responses to the Induced Co-Receptor Binding Site

Barna Dey, Krisha Svehla, Ling Xu, Dianne Wycuff, Tongqing Zhou, Gerald Voss, Adhuna Phogat, Bimal K. Chakrabarti, Yuxing Li, George Shaw, Peter D. Kwong, Gary J. Nabel, John R. Mascola, Richard T. Wyatt

A New Malaria Agent in African Hominids

Benjamin Ollomo, Patrick Durand, Franck Prugnolle, Emmanuel Douzery, Céline Arnathau, Dieudonné Nkoghe, Eric Leroy, François Renaud

In Vivo Transcriptional Profiling of Listeria monocytogenes and Mutagenesis Identify New Virulence Factors Involved in Infection

Ana Camejo, Carmen Buchrieser, Elisabeth Couvé, Filipe Carvalho, Olga Reis, Pierre Ferreira, Sandra Sousa, Pascale Cossart, Didier Cabanes

Vpu Antagonizes BST-2–Mediated Restriction of HIV-1 Release via β-TrCP and Endo-Lysosomal Trafficking

Richard S. Mitchell, Chris Katsura, Mark A. Skasko, Katie Fitzpatrick, David Lau, Autumn Ruiz, Edward B. Stephens, Florence Margottin-Goguet, Richard Benarous, John C. Guatelli

The Base Excision Repair System of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Counteracts DNA Damage by Host Nitric Oxide

Anthony R. Richardson, Khanh C. Soliven, Margaret E. Castor, Penelope D. Barnes, Stephen J. Libby, Ferric C. Fang

A Therapeutic Antibody against West Nile Virus Neutralizes Infection by Blocking Fusion within Endosomes

Bruce S. Thompson, Bastiaan Moesker, Jolanda M. Smit, Jan Wilschut, Michael S. Diamond, Daved H. Fremont

Increasing Clinical Virulence in Two Decades of the Italian HIV Epidemic

Viktor Müller, Franco Maggiolo, Fredy Suter, Nicoletta Ladisa, Andrea De Luca, Andrea Antinori, Laura Sighinolfi, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Giampiero Carosi, Carlo Torti

Genetic Detection and Characterization of Lujo Virus, a New Hemorrhagic Fever–Associated Arenavirus from Southern Africa

Thomas Briese, Janusz T. Paweska, Laura K. McMullan, Stephen K. Hutchison, Craig Street, Gustavo Palacios, Marina L. Khristova, Jacqueline Weyer, Robert Swanepoel, Michael Egholm, Stuart T. Nichol, W. Ian Lipkin

The Heart Is an Early Target of Anthrax Lethal Toxin in Mice: A Protective Role for Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS)

Mahtab Moayeri, Devorah Crown, David W. Dorward, Don Gardner, Jerrold M. Ward, Yan Li, Xizhong Cui, Peter Eichacker, Stephen H. Leppla

Viral Sequestration of Antigen Subverts Cross Presentation to CD8+ T Cells

Eric F. Tewalt, Jean M. Grant, Erica L. Granger, Douglas C. Palmer, Neal D. Heuss, Dale S. Gregerson, Nicholas P. Restifo, Christopher C. Norbury

Rapid Global Expansion of the Fungal Disease Chytridiomycosis into Declining and Healthy Amphibian Populations

Timothy Y. James, Anastasia P. Litvintseva, Rytas Vilgalys, Jess A. T. Morgan, John W. Taylor, Matthew C. Fisher, Lee Berger, Ché Weldon, Louis du Preez, Joyce E. Longcore

Comparative Genomic Characterization of Francisella tularensis Strains Belonging to Low and High Virulence Subspecies

Mia D. Champion, Qiandong Zeng, Eli B. Nix, Francis E. Nano, Paul Keim, Chinnappa D. Kodira, Mark Borowsky, Sarah Young, Michael Koehrsen, Reinhard Engels, Matthew Pearson, Clint Howarth, Lisa Larson, Jared White, Lucia Alvarado, Mats Forsman, Scott W. Bearden, Anders Sjöstedt, Richard Titball, Stephen L. Michell, Bruce Birren, James Galagan

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Universal Stress Protein Rv2623 Regulates Bacillary Growth by ATP-Binding: Requirement for Establishing Chronic Persistent Infection

Joshua E. Drumm, Kaixia Mi, Patrick Bilder, Meihao Sun, Jihyeon Lim, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Randall Basaraba, Melvin So, Guofeng Zhu, JoAnn M. Tufariello, Angelo A. Izzo, Ian M. Orme, Steve C. Almo, Thomas S. Leyh, John Chan

Apoptosis Is Essential for Neutrophil Functional Shutdown and Determines Tissue Damage in Experimental Pneumococcal Meningitis

Uwe Koedel, Tobias Frankenberg, Susanne Kirschnek, Bianca Obermaier, Hans Häcker, Robert Paul, Georg Häcker

P58IPK: A Novel “CIHD” Member of the Host Innate Defense Response against Pathogenic Virus Infection

Alan G. Goodman, Jamie L. Fornek, Guruprasad R. Medigeshi, Lucy A. Perrone, Xinxia Peng, Matthew D. Dyer, Sean C. Proll, Sue E. Knoblaugh, Victoria S. Carter, Marcus J. Korth, Jay A. Nelson, Terrence M. Tumpey, Michael G. Katze

Deaminase-Independent Inhibition of Parvoviruses by the APOBEC3A Cytidine Deaminase

Iñigo Narvaiza, Daniel C. Linfesty, Benjamin N. Greener, Yoshiyuki Hakata, David J. Pintel, Eric Logue, Nathaniel R. Landau, Matthew D. Weitzman

Use of Tissue-Specific MicroRNA to Control Pathology of Wild-Type Adenovirus without Attenuation of Its Ability to Kill Cancer Cells

Ryan Cawood, Hannah H. Chen, Fionnadh Carroll, Miriam Bazan-Peregrino, Nico van Rooijen, Leonard W. Seymour

Sand Fly Salivary Proteins Induce Strong Cellular Immunity in a Natural Reservoir of Visceral Leishmaniasis with Adverse Consequences for Leishmania

Nicolas Collin, Regis Gomes, Clarissa Teixeira, Lily Cheng, Andre Laughinghouse, Jerrold M. Ward, Dia-Eldin Elnaiem, Laurent Fischer, Jesus G. Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi

CAR-Associated Vesicular Transport of an Adenovirus in Motor Neuron Axons

Sara Salinas, Lynsey G. Bilsland, Daniel Henaff, Anne E. Weston, Anne Keriel, Giampietro Schiavo, Eric J. Kremer

Mutation of a Single Residue Renders Human Tetherin Resistant to HIV-1 Vpu-Mediated Depletion

Ravindra K. Gupta, Stéphane Hué, Torsten Schaller, Ernst Verschoor, Deenan Pillay, Greg J. Towers

Activation of Human Monocytes by Live Borrelia burgdorferi Generates TLR2-Dependent and -Independent Responses Which Include Induction of IFN-β

Juan C. Salazar, Star Duhnam-Ems, Carson La Vake, Adriana R. Cruz, Meagan W. Moore, Melissa J. Caimano, Leonor Velez-Climent, Jonathan Shupe, Winfried Krueger, Justin D. Radolf

The Urokinase Receptor (uPAR) Facilitates Clearance of Borrelia burgdorferi

Joppe W. R. Hovius, Maarten F. Bijlsma, Gerritje J. W. van der Windt, W. Joost Wiersinga, Bastiaan J. D. Boukens, Jeroen Coumou, Anneke Oei, Regina de Beer, Alex F. de Vos, Cornelis van 't Veer, Alje P. van Dam, Penghua Wang, Erol Fikrig, Marcel M. Levi, Joris J. T. H. Roelofs, Tom van der Poll

De Novo Generation of Infectious Prions In Vitro Produces a New Disease Phenotype

Marcelo A. Barria, Abhisek Mukherjee, Dennisse Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo Morales, Claudio Soto

Avian Influenza Virus Glycoproteins Restrict Virus Replication and Spread through Human Airway Epithelium at Temperatures of the Proximal Airways

Margaret A. Scull, Laura Gillim-Ross, Celia Santos, Kim L. Roberts, Elena Bordonali, Kanta Subbarao, Wendy S. Barclay, Raymond J. Pickles

Cytomegalovirus Infection Causes an Increase of Arterial Blood Pressure

Jilin Cheng, Qingen Ke, Zhuang Jin, Haibin Wang, Olivier Kocher, James P. Morgan, Jielin Zhang, Clyde S. Crumpacker

The SARS-Unique Domain (SUD) of SARS Coronavirus Contains Two Macrodomains That Bind G-Quadruplexes

Jinzhi Tan, Clemens Vonrhein, Oliver S. Smart, Gerard Bricogne, Michela Bollati, Yuri Kusov, Guido Hansen, Jeroen R. Mesters, Christian L. Schmidt, Rolf Hilgenfeld

Species-Specific Activity of SIV Nef and HIV-1 Vpu in Overcoming Restriction by Tetherin/BST2

Bin Jia, Ruth Serra-Moreno, William Neidermyer Jr., Andrew Rahmberg, John Mackey, Ismael Ben Fofana, Welkin E. Johnson, Susan Westmoreland, David T. Evans

Atg5-Independent Sequestration of Ubiquitinated Mycobacteria

Cathleen A. Collins, Ann De Mazière, Suzanne van Dijk, Fredric Carlsson, Judith Klumperman, Eric J. Brown

Broadly Neutralizing Human Anti-HIV Antibody 2G12 Is Effective in Protection against Mucosal SHIV Challenge Even at Low Serum Neutralizing Titers

Ann J. Hessell, Eva G. Rakasz, Pascal Poignard, Lars Hangartner, Gary Landucci, Donald N. Forthal, Wayne C. Koff, David I. Watkins, Dennis R. Burton

Natural Killer T Cells Activated by a Lipopeptidophosphoglycan from Entamoeba histolytica Are Critically Important To Control Amebic Liver Abscess

Hannelore Lotter, Nestor González-Roldán, Buko Lindner, Florian Winau, Armando Isibasi, Martha Moreno-Lafont, Artur J. Ulmer, Otto Holst, Egbert Tannich, Thomas Jacobs

Intrinsic Thermal Sensing Controls Proteolysis of Yersinia Virulence Regulator RovA

Katharina Herbst, Matthias Bujara, Ann Kathrin Heroven, Wiebke Opitz, Martin Weichert, Ariane Zimmermann, Petra Dersch

The F0F1-ATP Synthase Complex Contains Novel Subunits and Is Essential for Procyclic Trypanosoma brucei

Alena Zíková, Achim Schnaufer, Rachel A. Dalley, Aswini K. Panigrahi, Kenneth D. Stuart

HIV Evolution in Early Infection: Selection Pressures, Patterns of Insertion and Deletion, and the Impact of APOBEC

Natasha Wood, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Brandon F. Keele, Elena Giorgi, Michael Liu, Brian Gaschen, Marcus Daniels, Guido Ferrari, Barton F. Haynes, Andrew McMichael, George M. Shaw, Beatrice H. Hahn, Bette Korber, Cathal Seoighe

Molecular Mechanisms of Recombination Restriction in the Envelope Gene of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Etienne Simon-Loriere, Roman Galetto, Meriem Hamoudi, John Archer, Pierre Lefeuvre, Darren P. Martin, David L. Robertson, Matteo Negroni

Unique Structure and Stability of HmuY, a Novel Heme-Binding Protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis

Halina Wójtowicz, Tibisay Guevara, Cynthia Tallant, Mariusz Olczak, Aneta Sroka, Jan Potempa, Maria Solà, Teresa Olczak, F. Xavier Gomis-Rüth

A Complex Extracellular Sphingomyelinase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Inhibits Angiogenesis by Selective Cytotoxicity to Endothelial Cells

Michael L. Vasil, Martin J. Stonehouse, Adriana I. Vasil, Sandra J. Wadsworth, Howard Goldfine, Robert E. Bolcome III, Joanne Chan

Dual Role for Pilus in Adherence to Epithelial Cells and Biofilm Formation in Streptococcus agalactiae

Yoan Konto-Ghiorghi, Emilie Mairey, Adeline Mallet, Guillaume Duménil, Elise Caliot, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Shaynoor Dramsi

Mutation of the Protein Kinase C Site in Borna Disease Virus Phosphoprotein Abrogates Viral Interference with Neuronal Signaling and Restores Normal Synaptic Activity

Christine M. A. Prat, Sonja Schmid, Fanny Farrugia, Nicolas Cenac, Gwendal Le Masson, Martin Schwemmle, Daniel Gonzalez-Dunia

Identification of an Intracellular Site of Prion Conversion

Zrinka Marijanovic, Anna Caputo, Vincenza Campana, Chiara Zurzolo

Differential Modulation of TNF-α–Induced Apoptosis by Neisseria meningitidis

Ala-Eddine Deghmane, Carole Veckerlé, Dario Giorgini, Eva Hong, Corinne Ruckly, Muhamed-Kheir Taha

The Defective Prophage Pool of Escherichia coli O157: Prophage–Prophage Interactions Potentiate Horizontal Transfer of Virulence Determinants

Md Asadulghani, Yoshitoshi Ogura, Tadasuke Ooka, Takehiko Itoh, Akira Sawaguchi, Atsushi Iguchi, Keisuke Nakayama, Tetsuya Hayashi

Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of a Live Attenuated H5N1 Vaccine in Nonhuman Primates

Shufang Fan, Yuwei Gao, Kyoko Shinya, Chris Kafai Li, Yanbing Li, Jianzhong Shi, Yongping Jiang, Yongbing Suo, Tiegang Tong, Gongxun Zhong, Jiasheng Song, Ying Zhang, Guobin Tian, Yuntao Guan, Xiao-Ning Xu, Zhigao Bu, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Hualan Chen

Genome-Scale Multilocus Microsatellite Typing of Trypanosoma cruzi Discrete Typing Unit I Reveals Phylogeographic Structure and Specific Genotypes Linked to Human Infection

Martin S. Llewellyn, Michael A. Miles, Hernan J. Carrasco, Michael D. Lewis, Matthew Yeo, Jorge Vargas, Faustino Torrico, Patricio Diosque, Vera Valente, Sebastiao A. Valente, Michael W. Gaunt

SdrF, a Staphylococcus epidermidis Surface Protein, Contributes to the Initiation of Ventricular Assist Device Driveline–Related Infections

Carlos Arrecubieta, Faustino A. Toba, Manuel von Bayern, Hirokazu Akashi, Mario C. Deng, Yoshifumi Naka, Franklin D. Lowy

Recombination between Polioviruses and Co-Circulating Coxsackie A Viruses: Role in the Emergence of Pathogenic Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses

Sophie Jegouic, Marie-Line Joffret, Claire Blanchard, Franck B. Riquet, Céline Perret, Isabelle Pelletier, Florence Colbere-Garapin, Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Francis Delpeyroux

Bacteria-Induced Uroplakin Signaling Mediates Bladder Response to Infection

Praveen Thumbikat, Ruth E. Berry, Ge Zhou, Benjamin K. Billips, Ryan E. Yaggie, Tetiana Zaichuk, Tung-Tien Sun, Anthony J. Schaeffer, David J. Klumpp

Saffold Virus, a Human Theiler's-Like Cardiovirus, Is Ubiquitous and Causes Infection Early in Life

Jan Zoll, Sandra Erkens Hulshof, Kjerstin Lanke, Frans Verduyn Lunel, Willem J. G. Melchers, Esther Schoondermark-van de Ven, Merja Roivainen, Jochem M. D. Galama, Frank J. M. van Kuppeveld

Endothelial Targeting of Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV) via Surface Vimentin

Kristopher J. Koudelka, Giuseppe Destito, Emily M. Plummer, Sunia A. Trauger, Gary Siuzdak, Marianne Manchester