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Table of Contents: June 2009

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Exopolysaccharide is one of the major components in P. aeruginosa biofilms. Exopolysaccharide production is positively regulated by an intracellular second messenger, 3,5-cyclic diguanylic acid. The flower-shaped colony is formed in the mutant lacking tyrosine phosphatase (TpbA) activity, which results in increased 3,5-cyclic diguanylic acid concentrations and overproduction of exopolysaccharide. The tpbA mutant formed 147-fold more biofilms because of overproduction of exopolysaccharide triggered by the increased 3,5-cyclic diguanylic acid concentration. Therefore, biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa is significantly regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation via TpbA (see Ueda and Wood, doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000483).

Editorial

“Pearls”: A New Type of Open-Access Educational Resource

Hiten D. Madhani, Kasturi Haldar, Grant McFadden

Opinion

Pandemic Vaccine Preparedness—Have We Left Something Behind?

Ilaria Capua, Anna Kajaste-Rudnitski, Elena Bertoli, Elisa Vicenzi

Pearls

Review

Efflux in Fungi: La Pièce de Résistance

Jeffrey J. Coleman, Eleftherios Mylonakis

Research Articles

The Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and the Small GTPase Rab 2 Are Crucial for Brucella Replication

Emilie Fugier, Suzana P. Salcedo, Chantal de Chastellier, Matthieu Pophillat, Alexandre Muller, Vilma Arce-Gorvel, Patrick Fourquet, Jean-Pierre Gorvel

Stage-Specific Inhibition of MHC Class I Presentation by the Epstein-Barr Virus BNLF2a Protein during Virus Lytic Cycle

Nathan P. Croft, Claire Shannon-Lowe, Andrew I. Bell, Daniëlle Horst, Elisabeth Kremmer, Maaike E. Ressing, Emmanuel J. H. J. Wiertz, Jaap M. Middeldorp, Martin Rowe, Alan B. Rickinson, Andrew D. Hislop

The Structure of a Biologically Active Influenza Virus Ribonucleoprotein Complex

Rocío Coloma, José M. Valpuesta, Rocío Arranz, José L. Carrascosa, Juan Ortín, Jaime Martín-Benito

Epstein-Barr Virus Latency in B Cells Leads to Epigenetic Repression and CpG Methylation of the Tumour Suppressor Gene Bim

Kostas Paschos, Paul Smith, Emma Anderton, Jaap M. Middeldorp, Robert E. White, Martin J. Allday

Ebola Zaire Virus Blocks Type I Interferon Production by Exploiting the Host SUMO Modification Machinery

Tsung-Hsien Chang, Toru Kubota, Mayumi Matsuoka, Steven Jones, Steven B. Bradfute, Mike Bray, Keiko Ozato

Epigenetic Regulation of HIV-1 Latency by Cytosine Methylation

Steven E. Kauder, Alberto Bosque, Annica Lindqvist, Vicente Planelles, Eric Verdin

Innate Immune Sensing of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) Is Mediated by TLR2-TLR6, MDA-5 and the NALP3 Inflammasome

Julie Delaloye, Thierry Roger, Quynh-Giao Steiner-Tardivel, Didier Le Roy, Marlies Knaup Reymond, Shizuo Akira, Virginie Petrilli, Carmen E. Gomez, Beatriz Perdiguero, Jürg Tschopp, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Mariano Esteban, Thierry Calandra

Vector Transmission of Leishmania Abrogates Vaccine-Induced Protective Immunity

Nathan C. Peters, Nicola Kimblin, Nagila Secundino, Shaden Kamhawi, Phillip Lawyer, David L. Sacks

Intravenous Inoculation of a Bat-Associated Rabies Virus Causes Lethal Encephalopathy in Mice through Invasion of the Brain via Neurosecretory Hypothalamic Fibers

Mirjam A. R. Preuss, Marie-Luise Faber, Gene S. Tan, Michael Bette, Bernhard Dietzschold, Eberhard Weihe, Matthias J. Schnell

Zinc Coordination Is Required for and Regulates Transcription Activation by Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1

Siddhesh Aras, Gyanendra Singh, Kenneth Johnston, Timothy Foster, Ashok Aiyar

Molecular Evolutionary Consequences of Niche Restriction in Francisella tularensis, a Facultative Intracellular Pathogen

Pär Larsson, Daniel Elfsmark, Kerstin Svensson, Per Wikström, Mats Forsman, Thomas Brettin, Paul Keim, Anders Johansson

Influenza B Virus Ribonucleoprotein Is a Potent Activator of the Antiviral Kinase PKR

Bianca Dauber, Luis Martínez-Sobrido, Jana Schneider, Rong Hai, Zoe Waibler, Ulrich Kalinke, Adolfo García-Sastre, Thorsten Wolff

MARCO, TLR2, and CD14 Are Required for Macrophage Cytokine Responses to Mycobacterial Trehalose Dimycolate and Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Dawn M. E. Bowdish, Kaori Sakamoto, Mi-Jeong Kim, Mariliis Kroos, Subhankar Mukhopadhyay, Cynthia A. Leifer, Karl Tryggvason, Siamon Gordon, David G. Russell

Production of Infectious Genotype 1b Virus Particles in Cell Culture and Impairment by Replication Enhancing Mutations

Thomas Pietschmann, Margarita Zayas, Philip Meuleman, Gang Long, Nicole Appel, George Koutsoudakis, Stephanie Kallis, Geert Leroux-Roels, Volker Lohmann, Ralf Bartenschlager

Pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharide Structure Predicts Serotype Prevalence

Daniel M. Weinberger, Krzysztof Trzciński, Ying-Jie Lu, Debby Bogaert, Aaron Brandes, James Galagan, Porter W. Anderson, Richard Malley, Marc Lipsitch

Rapid Pathogen-Induced Apoptosis: A Mechanism Used by Dendritic Cells to Limit Intracellular Replication of Legionella pneumophila

Catarina V. Nogueira, Tullia Lindsten, Amanda M. Jamieson, Christopher L. Case, Sunny Shin, Craig B. Thompson, Craig R. Roy

Recruitment of a SAP18-HDAC1 Complex into HIV-1 Virions and Its Requirement for Viral Replication

Masha Sorin, Jennifer Cano, Supratik Das, Sheeba Mathew, Xuhong Wu, Kelvin P. Davies, Xuanling Shi, S.-W. Grace Cheng, David Ott, Ganjam V. Kalpana

Cross-Talk between TLR4 and FcγReceptorIII (CD16) Pathways

Daniel Rittirsch, Michael A. Flierl, Danielle E. Day, Brian A. Nadeau, Firas S. Zetoune, J. Vidya Sarma, Clement M. Werner, Guido A. Wanner, Hans-Peter Simmen, Markus S. Huber-Lang, Peter A. Ward

Genomic Analyses of the Microsporidian Nosema ceranae, an Emergent Pathogen of Honey Bees

R. Scott Cornman, Yan Ping Chen, Michael C. Schatz, Craig Street, Yan Zhao, Brian Desany, Michael Egholm, Stephen Hutchison, Jeffery S. Pettis, W. Ian Lipkin, Jay D. Evans

Mosquitoes Put the Brake on Arbovirus Evolution: Experimental Evolution Reveals Slower Mutation Accumulation in Mosquito Than Vertebrate Cells

Nikos Vasilakis, Eleanor R. Deardorff, Joan L. Kenney, Shannan L. Rossi, Kathryn A. Hanley, Scott C. Weaver

The Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-PLC in Trypanosoma brucei Forms a Linear Array on the Exterior of the Flagellar Membrane Before and After Activation

Orla Hanrahan, Helena Webb, Robert O'Byrne, Elaine Brabazon, Achim Treumann, Jack D. Sunter, Mark Carrington, H. Paul Voorheis