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Table of Contents: September 2009

COVER

Sudden oak death mortality of tanoak in Marin County, California.

Image Credit: USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection
Issue Image

Sudden oak death, caused by the fungus-like pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, has caused devastating levels of mortality of live oak and tanoak trees in coastal California. It also infects popular ornamental plants, and the shipment of diseased plants from West Coast wholesale nurseries has risked introduction to other vulnerable forests. Goss et al. examined the genetic diversity of this pathogen in US nurseries and found that there are two predominant eastward migration pathways originating from the West, in either California or the Pacific Northwest. This work has implications for management of sudden oak death (see Goss et al., doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000583).

Opinions

Pearls

Research Articles

Bacillus anthracis Lethal Toxin Disrupts TCR Signaling in CD1d-Restricted NKT Cells Leading to Functional Anergy

Sunil K. Joshi, Gillian A. Lang, Jason L. Larabee, T. Scott Devera, Lindsay M. Aye, Hemangi B. Shah, Jimmy D. Ballard, Mark L. Lang

Molecular Phylodynamics of the Heterosexual HIV Epidemic in the United Kingdom

Gareth J. Hughes, Esther Fearnhill, David Dunn, Samantha J. Lycett, Andrew Rambaut, Andrew J. Leigh Brown , on behalf of the UK HIV Drug Resistance Collaboration

Ion-Abrasion Scanning Electron Microscopy Reveals Surface-Connected Tubular Conduits in HIV-Infected Macrophages

Adam E. Bennett, Kedar Narayan, Dan Shi, Lisa M. Hartnell, Karine Gousset, Haifeng He, Bradley C. Lowekamp, Terry S. Yoo, Donald Bliss, Eric O. Freed, Sriram Subramaniam

Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 1 Capsular Polysaccharide Induces CD8+CD28 Regulatory T Lymphocytes by TCR Crosslinking

Janina Mertens, Mario Fabri, Alessandra Zingarelli, Torsten Kubacki, Sonja Meemboor, Laura Groneck, Jens Seeger, Martina Bessler, Helena Hafke, Margarete Odenthal, Joan G. Bieler, Christoph Kalka, Jonathan P. Schneck, Hamid Kashkar, Wiltrud M. Kalka-Moll

A Cyclic GMP Signalling Module That Regulates Gliding Motility in a Malaria Parasite

Robert W. Moon, Cathy J. Taylor, Claudia Bex, Rebecca Schepers, David Goulding, Chris J. Janse, Andrew P. Waters, David A. Baker, Oliver Billker

SnTox3 Acts in Effector Triggered Susceptibility to Induce Disease on Wheat Carrying the Snn3 Gene

Zhaohui Liu, Justin D. Faris, Richard P. Oliver, Kar-Chun Tan, Peter S. Solomon, Megan C. McDonald, Bruce A. McDonald, Alberto Nunez, Shunwen Lu, Jack B. Rasmussen, Timothy L. Friesen

A Novel System for the Launch of Alphavirus RNA Synthesis Reveals a Role for the Imd Pathway in Arthropod Antiviral Response

Vasanthi Avadhanula, Brandon P. Weasner, Gail G. Hardy, Justin P. Kumar, Richard W. Hardy

Population Genetic Analysis Infers Migration Pathways of Phytophthora ramorum in US Nurseries

Erica M. Goss, Meg Larsen, Gary A. Chastagner, Donald R. Givens, Niklaus J. Grünwald

Getting to Grips with Strangles: An Effective Multi-Component Recombinant Vaccine for the Protection of Horses from Streptococcus equi Infection

Bengt Guss, Margareta Flock, Lars Frykberg, Andrew S. Waller, Carl Robinson, Ken C. Smith, Jan-Ingmar Flock

Mucosal Immunization with Iron Receptor Antigens Protects against Urinary Tract Infection

Christopher J. Alteri, Erin C. Hagan, Kelsey E. Sivick, Sara N. Smith, Harry L. T. Mobley

Differential Regulation of Type I Interferon and Epidermal Growth Factor Pathways by a Human Respirovirus Virulence Factor

Grégory Caignard, Anastassia V. Komarova, Mehdi Bouraï, Thomas Mourez, Yves Jacob, Louis M. Jones, Flore Rozenberg, Astrid Vabret, François Freymuth, Frédéric Tangy, Pierre-Olivier Vidalain

Escape from Autologous Neutralizing Antibodies in Acute/Early Subtype C HIV-1 Infection Requires Multiple Pathways

Rong Rong, Bing Li, Rebecca M. Lynch, Richard E. Haaland, Megan K. Murphy, Joseph Mulenga, Susan A. Allen, Abraham Pinter, George M. Shaw, Eric Hunter, James E. Robinson, S. Gnanakaran, Cynthia A. Derdeyn

Limited Neutralizing Antibody Specificities Drive Neutralization Escape in Early HIV-1 Subtype C Infection

Penny L. Moore, Nthabeleng Ranchobe, Bronwen E. Lambson, Elin S. Gray, Eleanor Cave, Melissa-Rose Abrahams, Gama Bandawe, Koleka Mlisana, Salim S. Abdool Karim, Carolyn Williamson, Lynn Morris , the CAPRISA 002 study and the NIAID Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI)

Fine Pathogen Discrimination within the APL1 Gene Family Protects Anopheles gambiae against Human and Rodent Malaria Species

Christian Mitri, Jean-Claude Jacques, Isabelle Thiery, Michelle M. Riehle, Jiannong Xu, Emmanuel Bischoff, Isabelle Morlais, Sandrine E. Nsango, Kenneth D. Vernick, Catherine Bourgouin

Autophagy Gene Variant IRGM −261T Contributes to Protection from Tuberculosis Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis but Not by M. africanum Strains

Christopher D. Intemann, Thorsten Thye, Stefan Niemann, Edmund N. L. Browne, Margaret Amanua Chinbuah, Anthony Enimil, John Gyapong, Ivy Osei, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Susanne Helm, Sabine Rüsch-Gerdes, Rolf D. Horstmann, Christian G. Meyer

Quantitation of Human Seroresponsiveness to Merkel Cell Polyomavirus

Diana V. Pastrana, Yanis L. Tolstov, Jürgen C. Becker, Patrick S. Moore, Yuan Chang, Christopher B. Buck

Genomic Diversity and Evolution of Mycobacterium ulcerans Revealed by Next-Generation Sequencing

Weihong Qi, Michael Käser, Katharina Röltgen, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu, Gerd Pluschke

O-Antigen Delays Lipopolysaccharide Recognition and Impairs Antibacterial Host Defense in Murine Intestinal Epithelial Cells

Claudia U. Duerr, Sebastian F. Zenk, Cécilia Chassin, Johanna Pott, Dominique Gütle, Michael Hensel, Mathias W. Hornef

Suppression of Cell-Mediated Immunity following Recognition of Phagosome-Confined Bacteria

Keith S. Bahjat, Nicole Meyer-Morse, Edward E. Lemmens, Jessica A. Shugart, Thomas W. Dubensky Jr., Dirk G. Brockstedt, Daniel A. Portnoy

Plasmodium falciparum Heterochromatin Protein 1 Marks Genomic Loci Linked to Phenotypic Variation of Exported Virulence Factors

Christian Flueck, Richard Bartfai, Jennifer Volz, Igor Niederwieser, Adriana M. Salcedo-Amaya, Blaise T. F. Alako, Florian Ehlgen, Stuart A. Ralph, Alan F. Cowman, Zbynek Bozdech, Hendrik G. Stunnenberg, Till S. Voss

Evolutionarily Conserved Herpesviral Protein Interaction Networks

Even Fossum, Caroline C. Friedel, Seesandra V. Rajagopala, Björn Titz, Armin Baiker, Tina Schmidt, Theo Kraus, Thorsten Stellberger, Christiane Rutenberg, Silpa Suthram, Sourav Bandyopadhyay, Dietlind Rose, Albrecht von Brunn, Mareike Uhlmann, Christine Zeretzke, Yu-An Dong, Hélène Boulet, Manfred Koegl, Susanne M. Bailer, Ulrich Koszinowski, Trey Ideker, Peter Uetz, Ralf Zimmer, Jürgen Haas

Bidirectional Introgressive Hybridization between a Cattle and Human Schistosome Species

Tine Huyse, Bonnie L. Webster, Sarah Geldof, J. Russell. Stothard, Oumar T. Diaw, Katja Polman, David Rollinson

A Novel Extracytoplasmic Function (ECF) Sigma Factor Regulates Virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

María A. Llamas, Astrid van der Sar, Byron C. H. Chu, Marion Sparrius, Hans J. Vogel, Wilbert Bitter

CD8+ T Cells Restrict Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infection: Bypass of Anti-Phagocytosis by Targeting Antigen-Presenting Cells

Molly A. Bergman, Wendy P. Loomis, Joan Mecsas, Michael N. Starnbach, Ralph R. Isberg

HIV-1 Vpu Neutralizes the Antiviral Factor Tetherin/BST-2 by Binding It and Directing Its Beta-TrCP2-Dependent Degradation

Bastien Mangeat, Gustavo Gers-Huber, Martin Lehmann, Madeleine Zufferey, Jeremy Luban, Vincent Piguet