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Table of Contents: December 2009

COVER

Invasive EPEC.

Image Credit: Richard Bulgin, Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Imperial College London
Issue Image

Since its discovery in 1945, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) has been considered an extracellular pathogen, which triggers formation of actin-rich pedestal-like structures at the bacterial attachment site. Richard Bulgin et al. discovered a novel category of invasive EPEC. EPEC (blue) invasion via membrane ruffles (red) is dependent on the type III secretion system effector EspT and activation of Rac1 and Wave2. Invasive bacteria reside within an EPEC-containing vacuole (ECV) and trigger formation of intracellular actin pedestals that are essential for intracellular survival/multiplication (see Bulgin et al., doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000683).

Opinion

Expanding the Paradigms of Plant Pathogen Life History and Evolution of Parasitic Fitness beyond Agricultural Boundaries

Cindy E. Morris, Marc Bardin, Linda L. Kinkel, Benoit Moury, Philippe C. Nicot, David C. Sands

Pearls

The Inflammasomes

Mohamed Lamkanfi, Vishva M. Dixit

Review

Research Articles

RNA Interference and Single Particle Tracking Analysis of Hepatitis C Virus Endocytosis

Kelly E. Coller, Kristi L. Berger, Nicholas S. Heaton, Jacob D. Cooper, Rosa Yoon, Glenn Randall

Th1-Th17 Cells Mediate Protective Adaptive Immunity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans Infection in Mice

Lin Lin, Ashraf S. Ibrahim, Xin Xu, Joshua M. Farber, Valentina Avanesian, Beverlie Baquir, Yue Fu, Samuel W. French, John E. Edwards Jr., Brad Spellberg

Molecular Mimicry by an F-Box Effector of Legionella pneumophila Hijacks a Conserved Polyubiquitination Machinery within Macrophages and Protozoa

Christopher T. Price, Souhaila Al-Khodor, Tasneem Al-Quadan, Marina Santic, Fabien Habyarimana, Awdhesh Kalia, Yousef Abu Kwaik

Three Dimensional Structure of the MqsR:MqsA Complex: A Novel TA Pair Comprised of a Toxin Homologous to RelE and an Antitoxin with Unique Properties

Breann L. Brown, Simina Grigoriu, Younghoon Kim, Jennifer M. Arruda, Andrew Davenport, Thomas K. Wood, Wolfgang Peti, Rebecca Page

Analysis of FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells That Display Apparent Viral Antigen Specificity during Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

Shuo Li, Stefan Floess, Alf Hamann, Silvana Gaudieri, Andrew Lucas, Margaret Hellard, Stuart Roberts, Geza Paukovic, Magdalena Plebanski, Bruce E. Loveland, Campbell Aitken, Simon Barry, Louis Schofield, Eric J. Gowans

Bacterial Effector Binding to Ribosomal Protein S3 Subverts NF-κB Function

Xiaofei Gao, Fengyi Wan, Kristina Mateo, Eduardo Callegari, Dan Wang, Wanyin Deng, Jose Puente, Feng Li, Michael S. Chaussee, B. Brett Finlay, Michael J. Lenardo, Philip R. Hardwidge

Identification of Amino Acids in HA and PB2 Critical for the Transmission of H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses in a Mammalian Host

Yuwei Gao, Ying Zhang, Kyoko Shinya, Guohua Deng, Yongping Jiang, Zejun Li, Yuntao Guan, Guobin Tian, Yanbing Li, Jianzhong Shi, Liling Liu, Xianying Zeng, Zhigao Bu, Xianzhu Xia, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Hualan Chen

A Novel Phase Variation Mechanism in the Meningococcus Driven by a Ligand-Responsive Repressor and Differential Spacing of Distal Promoter Elements

Matteo M. E. Metruccio, Eva Pigozzi, Davide Roncarati, Francesco Berlanda Scorza, Nathalie Norais, Stuart A. Hill, Vincenzo Scarlato, Isabel Delany

Long-Range Activation of Systemic Immunity through Peptidoglycan Diffusion in Drosophila

Mathilde Gendrin, David P. Welchman, Mickael Poidevin, Mireille Hervé, Bruno Lemaitre

A Multivalent and Cross-Protective Vaccine Strategy against Arenaviruses Associated with Human Disease

Maya F. Kotturi, Jason Botten, John Sidney, Huynh-Hoa Bui, Lori Giancola, Matt Maybeno, Josie Babin, Carla Oseroff, Valerie Pasquetto, Jason A. Greenbaum, Bjoern Peters, Joey Ting, Danh Do, Lo Vang, Jeff Alexander, Howard Grey, Michael J. Buchmeier, Alessandro Sette

Fungicide-Driven Evolution and Molecular Basis of Multidrug Resistance in Field Populations of the Grey Mould Fungus Botrytis cinerea

Matthias Kretschmer, Michaela Leroch, Andreas Mosbach, Anne-Sophie Walker, Sabine Fillinger, Dennis Mernke, Henk-Jan Schoonbeek, Jean-Marc Pradier, Pierre Leroux, Maarten A. De Waard, Matthias Hahn

Protein C Inhibitor—A Novel Antimicrobial Agent

Erik Malmström, Matthias Mörgelin, Martin Malmsten, Linda Johansson, Anna Norrby-Teglund, Oonagh Shannon, Artur Schmidtchen, Joost C. M. Meijers, Heiko Herwald

T Cell Detection of a B-Cell Tropic Virus Infection: Newly-Synthesised versus Mature Viral Proteins as Antigen Sources for CD4 and CD8 Epitope Display

Laura K. Mackay, Heather M. Long, Jill M. Brooks, Graham S. Taylor, Carol S. Leung, Adrienne Chen, Fred Wang, Alan B. Rickinson

BCA2/Rabring7 Promotes Tetherin-Dependent HIV-1 Restriction

Kei Miyakawa, Akihide Ryo, Tsutomu Murakami, Kenji Ohba, Shoji Yamaoka, Mitsunori Fukuda, John Guatelli, Naoki Yamamoto

The T3SS Effector EspT Defines a New Category of Invasive Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) Which Form Intracellular Actin Pedestals

Richard Bulgin, Ana Arbeloa, David Goulding, Gordon Dougan, Valerie F. Crepin, Benoit Raymond, Gad Frankel

CD14 Signaling Restrains Chronic Inflammation through Induction of p38-MAPK/SOCS-Dependent Tolerance

Bikash Sahay, Rebeca L. Patsey, Christian H. Eggers, Juan C. Salazar, Justin D. Radolf, Timothy J. Sellati

Hypoxia and the Hypoxic Response Pathway Protect against Pore-Forming Toxins in C. elegans

Audrey Bellier, Chang-Shi Chen, Cheng-Yuan Kao, Hediye N. Cinar, Raffi V. Aroian

Functional Memory B Cells and Long-Lived Plasma Cells Are Generated after a Single Plasmodium chabaudi Infection in Mice

Francis Maina Ndungu, Emma Tamsin Cadman, Joshua Coulcher, Eunice Nduati, Elisabeth Couper, Douglas William MacDonald, Dorothy Ng, Jean Langhorne

Inhibition of Adaptive Immune Responses Leads to a Fatal Clinical Outcome in SIV-Infected Pigtailed Macaques but Not Vervet African Green Monkeys

Jörn E. Schmitz, Roland C. Zahn, Charles R. Brown, Melisa D. Rett, Ming Li, Haili Tang, Sarah Pryputniewicz, Russell A. Byrum, Amitinder Kaur, David C. Montefiori, Jonathan S. Allan, Simoy Goldstein, Vanessa M. Hirsch

Degradation of Host Sphingomyelin Is Essential for Leishmania Virulence

Ou Zhang, Mattie C. Wilson, Wei Xu, Fong-Fu Hsu, John Turk, F. Matthew Kuhlmann, Yingwei Wang, Lynn Soong, Phillip Key, Stephen M. Beverley, Kai Zhang

Central Role of the Holliday Junction Helicase RuvAB in vlsE Recombination and Infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi

Tao Lin, Lihui Gao, Diane G. Edmondson, Mary B. Jacobs, Mario T. Philipp, Steven J. Norris

Helicobacter pylori Type IV Secretion Apparatus Exploits β1 Integrin in a Novel RGD-Independent Manner

Luisa F. Jiménez-Soto, Stefan Kutter, Xaver Sewald, Claudia Ertl, Evelyn Weiss, Ulrike Kapp, Manfred Rohde, Torsten Pirch, Kirsten Jung, S. Francesco Retta, Laurent Terradot, Wolfgang Fischer, Rainer Haas

C-Terminal Mutants of Apolipoprotein L-I Efficiently Kill Both Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

Laurence Lecordier, Benoit Vanhollebeke, Philippe Poelvoorde, Patricia Tebabi, Françoise Paturiaux-Hanocq, Fabienne Andris, Laurence Lins, Etienne Pays

Innate Immune Recognition of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Type III Secretion

Victoria Auerbuch, Douglas T. Golenbock, Ralph R. Isberg